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Defense News 1993
International Review of the Red Cross, 1990
New World Vistas, USAF SAB 1996
Los Angeles Times, 1976
Los Angeles Herald -Examiner 1976
Oakland Tribune, 1994

Defense News

January 11-17, 1993, p 29

U.S. Explores Russian Mind-control Technology
U.S., Russia Hope to Safeguard Mind-Control Techniques
by Barbara Opall, Staff writer

U.S. Explores Russian Mind-Control Technology

Washington-The Russian government is perfecting mind-control technology developed in the 1970s that could be used to hone fighting capabilities of friendly forces while demoralizing and disabling opposing troops.

Known as acoustic psycho-correction, the capability to control minds and alter behavior of civilians and soldiers may soon be shared with U.S. military, medical and political officials, according to U.S. and Russian sources.

The sources say the Russian government, in the spirit of improved U.S.-Russian relations, is beginning to lift the veil of secrecy surrounding the technology.

The Russian capability, demonstrated in a series of laboratory experiments dating back to the mid-1970s, could be used to suppress riots, control dissidents, demoralize or disable opposing forces and enhance the performance of friendly special operations teams, sources say.

Pioneered by the government-funded Department of Psycho-Correction at the Moscow Medical Academy, acoustic psycho-correction involves the transmission of specific commands via static or white noise bands into the human subconscious without upsetting other intellectual functions. Experts said laboratory demonstrations have shown encouraging results after exposure of less than one minute.

Moreover, decades of research and investment of untold millions of rubles in the process of psycho-correction has produced the ability to alter behavior on willing and unwilling subjects, the experts add.

In an effort to restrict potential misuse of this capability, Russian senior research scientist, diplomats, military officers and officials of the Russian Ministry of Higher Education, Science & Technology Policy are beginning to provide limited demonstrations for their U.S. counterparts.

Further evaluations of key technologies in the United States are being planned, as are discussions aimed at creating a frame-work for bringing the issue under bilateral or multilateral controls, U.S. and Russian sources say.

An undated paper by the Psychor Center, a Moscow-based group affiliated with the Department of Psycho-Correction a Moscow Medical Academy acknowledges the potential (?) of this capability.

U.S., Russia Hope to Safeguard Mind-Control Techniques

Control, From Page 4

The Russian experts, including George Kotov, a former KGB general now serving in a senior government ministry post, present in their report a list of software and hardware associated with their psycho-correction program that could be procured for as little as $80,000.

"As far as it has become possible to probe and correct psychic contents of human beings despite their will and consciousness by instrumental means; results having been achieved can get out of { our} control and be used with inhumane purposes of manipulating psyche," the paper states.

The Russian authors note that " World opinion is not ready for dealing appropriately with the problems coming from the possibility of direct access to the human mind." Therefore, the Russian authors have proposed a bilateral Center for Psycho-technologies where U.S. and Russian {?} restrict the emerging capabilities.

Janet Morris of the Global Strategy Council, a Washington-based think tank established by Ray Cline, former Central Intelligence Agency deputy director, is a key U.S. liaison between Russian and U.S. officials.

In a Dec. 15 interview, Morris said she and the Richmond, Va-based International Healthline Corp. have briefed senior U.S. intelligence and Army officials about the Russian Capabilities, which Morris said could include hand-held devices for purposes of special operations, crowd control and antipersonnel actions. Healthline Corp. is evaluating Russian health care technologies and will underwrite Russian demonstrations in the United States.

"We talked about using this to screen and prepare special operations personnel for extremely difficult missions and ways in which this could be integrated {?} for psychological operations," Morris said.

She said Army officials were concerned about the capability being directed against armored systems and personnel through electronic communications links. Ground troops, she said, risk exposure to bone-conducting sound waves that cannot be offset by earplugs or other current protective gear. Morris added that U.S. countermeasures could include sound cancellation, a complex process that involves broadcasting oppositely phased wave forms in precisely matched frequencies.

Major Pete Keating, a U.S. Army spokesman, said senior Army officials had expressed interest in reviewing Russian capabilities but that repeated plans to schedule visits to the former Soviet Union were rejected by Donald Atwood, deputy secretary of defense. Keating said he was unfamiliar with the mind-control technology {?} specific details.

U.S. sources said government officials and leaders form the business and medical communities will consider Russian offers to place the mind-control capability under bilateral controls.

At least one senior U.S. senator, government intelligence officials and the U.S. Army's Office for Operations, Plans and Force Development are interested in reviewing the Russian capabilities, U.S. sources said.

In addition, International Healthline Corp. is planning to bring a team of Russian specialists here within the next couple of months to demonstrate the capability, company President Jim Hovis said in a Dec. 2 interview.

Meanwhile, the U.S. Army's Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center is conducting a one-year study of acoustic beam technology that may mirror some of the effects reported by the Russians.

Army spokesman Bill Har? said Dec 3 the command awaited the one-year study contracted Scientific Applications & Research Associates of Huntington Beach, Calif. Related research being conducted at the Moscow-based Andreev Institute, U.S. and Russian sources said.

Despite the growing interests a capability traditionally reserved for science fiction novels and ?, industry and academic experts, are cautious and skeptical about its potential battlefield use.

"This is not something that strikes me as requiring high-? attention," Raymond Gartho? defense and intelligence analyst at the Washington-based Brookings Institution, said in a De? interview.

Morris contends that the capability has been demonstrated in the laboratory in Russia and should be placed under international restrictions at the earliest possible ?


International Review of the Red Cross, 279

November 1, 1990
The Development of New Antipersonnel Weapons
by Louise Doswald-Beck and Gerald C. Cauderay

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resulting injuries is at present, and will be for the foreseeable future, virtually non-existent. The second working group, which will principally comprise psychiatrists and doctors, will study in greater detail the short and long-term effects, both  for the individual and for society, of blindness &a compared with other injuries typically sustained on the battlefield.  The information collected can then be used for a more thorough discussion of the legal and policy implications of the development of these weapons.

5. Directed energy weapons (DEW)

Apart from the anti-personnel laser weapon, which in some respects could also be considered as a directed energy weapon, there are also very special weapons, such as those using electromagnetic waves of different wavelengths   and generators of particle beams, which are considered by some experts as extremely efficient potential anti-materiel weapons. Although this particular type of weapon, which requires a considerable energy supply, in unlikely to become operational on the battlefield in the near future, the same cannot be said for weapon systems using beams of electromagnetic waves

18 of 27

or pulses. The effects induced in human beings by electromagnetic waves have been known, albeit imperfectly, for a long time and have been the subject of continuous research. Depending on the frequency used, the emission mode, the energy radiated, and the shape and duration of the pulses used, electromagnetic radiations directed against the human body may produce heat and cause serious bums or even changes in the molecular structure of the issues they reach.

Research work in this field has been carried out in almost all industrialized countries, and especially by the great powers, with a view to using these phenomena for anti-materiel or antipersonnel purposes. Tests have demonstrated that powerful microwave pulses could be used as a weapon in order to put the adversary hors de combat or even kill him. It is possible today to generate a very powerful microwave pulse (e.g., between 150 and 3,000 megahertz), with an energy level of several hundreds of megawatts. Using specially adapted antenna systems, these generators could in principle transmit over hundreds of metres sufficient energy to cook a meal.

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However, it is important to mention that the lethal or incapacitating effects which can be expected from weapon systems using this technology can be produced with much lower energy levels. Using the principle of magnetic field concentration, which permits the control of the geometry on the target, by means of antenna systems especially designed for the purpose,

the radiated energy can be concentrated on very small surfaces of the human body, for example the base of the brain where relatively low energy can produce lethal effects.  It seems that with currently available technology, serious consideration could be given to the production of such weapon systems, which could have a range of approximately 15 km and could sweep a zone with a series of fast pulses. Unprotected soldiers within this zone could be put hors de combat or killed within a few seconds. Such a weapon could be installed on a truck and would therefore be easily transportable.

In spite of the rarity of publications on this subject, and the fact tht it is usually strictly classified information, research undertaken in this field seems to have demonstrated that very small amounts of electromagnetic radiation could appreciably alter the functions of living cells. Research work has also revealed that pathological effects close to those induced by highly toxic substances could be produced by electromagnetic radiation even at very low power, especially those using a pulse shape containing a large number of different frequencies. As mentioned earlier, the energy necessary to achieve these results is often much lower than the energy required to induce a significant effect of heat in body tissues.

Some research seems to have confirmed that low-level electromagnetic fields, modulated to be similar to normal brainwaves could  seriously affect brain function. Experiments with pulsed magnetic f ields carried out in animals have reportedly produced specific effects such such as inducing sleep and triggering anxiety or aggressiveness, depending on the modulation of the frequency used. It is, on the other hand, well known that lethal effects can also be produced by using higher power levels than those used for the experiments on behaviour modification. An anti-personnel weapon based on such biophysical principles could produce similar effects to those of a nerve gas, but would have no secondary effects and leave no lasting trace.


New World Vistas, 1996

United States Air Force Scientific Advisory Board,  Ancillary Volume p. 89-90 

Biological Process Control

Looking 50 years into the future is extremely easy and, at the same time, exceedingly difficult. Easy, since I will not be around to catch the flak for being very wrong. Difficult, since it is really presumptuous to pretend that you have the vision to see the future. Nonetheless, you asked for it and here goes.

As we look forward to the future, it seems likely that this nation will be involved in multiple conflicts where out military forces increasingly will be placed in situations where the application of the full force capabilities of our military might cannot he applied. We will be involved intimately with hostile populations in situations where the application of non-lethal force will be the tactical or political preference. It appears likely that there are a number of physical agents that might actively, but largely benignly interact or interfere with biological processes in an adversary in a manner that will provide our armed forces the tools to control these adversaries without extensive loss of life or property.  These physical agents could include acoustic fields, optical fields, electromagnetic fields, and combinations thereof. This paper will address only the prospect of physical regulation of biological processes using electromagnetic fields.

The literature regarding the interaction of biological processes with electromagnetic fields is growing at a rapid rate. Sources are becoming more available, biomedical instrumentation is improving so that the interactions between biological processes and physical fields can be examined with fewer artifacts, and the principles underlying these  interactions are becoming clearer and more amenable to theoretical prediction.

Prior to the mid-21st centruy, there will be a virtual explosion of knowledge in the field of neuroscience. We will have achieved a clear understanding of how the human brain works, how it really controls the various functions of the body, and how it can be manipulated(both positively and negatively). One can envision the development of electromagnetic energy sources, the output of which can be pulsed, shaped, and focused, that can couple with the human body in a fashion that will allow one to prevent voluntary muscular movements, control emotions (and thus actions), produce sleep, transmit suggestions, interfere with both short-term and long-term memory, produce an experience set, and delete an experience set. This will open the door for the development of some novel capabilities that can be used in armed conflict, in terrorist/hostage situation, and in training. New weaoons that offer opportunity of control of an advserary without resorting to a lethal solution or to collateral casualties can be developed around this concept. This would offer significant improvements in the capabilities of our special operation forces. Initial experimentation should be focused on the interaction of electromagnetic energy and the neuromuscular junctions involved in voluntary muscle control. Theories need to be developed, modeled, and tested in experimental preparations. Early testing using in vitro cell cultures of neural networks could provide a focus for more definitive intact animal testing. If successful, one could envision a weapon that would render an opponenet incapable of taking any meaningful action involving any higher motor skills, (e.g. using weapons, operating tracking systems). The prospect of a weapon to accomplish this when targeted against an individual target is reasonable; the prospect of a weapon effective against a massed force would seem to be more remote. Use of such a device in an enclosed area against multiple targets (hostage situation) may be more difficult than an individual target system, but probably feasible.

It would also appear possible to create high fidelity speech in the human body, raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological direction. When a high power microwave pulse in the gigahertz range strikes the human body, a very small temperature perturbation occurs. This is associated with a sudden expansion of the slightly heated tissue. This expansion is fast enough to produce an acoustic wave. If a pusle stream is used, it should be possible to create an internal acoustic field in the 5-15 kilohertz range, which is audible. Thus, it may be possible to "talk" to selected adversaries in a fashion that would be most disturbing to them.

In comparison to the discussion in the paragraphs above, the concept of imprinting an experience set is highly speculative, but nonetheless, hgihly exciting. Modern electromagnetic scattering theory raised the prosepect that ultrashort pulse scattering through the human brain can result in reflected signals that can be used to construct a reliable estimate of the degree of central nervous system arousal. The concept behind this "remote EEG" is to scatter off of action potentials or ensembles of action potentials in major central nervous system tracts. Assuming we will understand how our skills are imprinted and recalled, it might be possible to take this concept one step further and duplicate the experience set in another individual. The prospect of providing a "been there-done that " knowledge base could provide a revolutionary change in our approach to specialized training. How this can be done or even if it can be done are significant unknowns. The impact of success would boggle the mind!


Los Angeles Times

Mind Reading Machine Tells Secrets of the Brain
Sci-Fi Comes True
March 29th 1976
by Norman Kempster

Washington-In a program out of science fiction, the government is developing mind-reading machines that can show, among other things, whether a person is fatigued, puzzled or daydreaming.

If the project lives up to is promise, the machines could be in use in airplane cockpits before the end of this decade to warn a pilot that his mind is wandering and he is failing to perform essential duties.

Since 1973, a little-known Pentagon agency has been studying ways to plug a computer into an individual's bran waves or electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in the scientist's lexicon.

The Advanced Research Projects Agency says the $1 million-a-year program has passed its initial laboratory tests and is ready for determination of its military uses.

Scientist working under agency contracts at the University of Illinois, UCLA, Stanford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Rochester and in laboratories other facilities have been able to determine an individual's alertness from his brain waves. They can tell also how he perceives colors and shapes.

But there may come a day when the EEG will be used to perform more bizarre tasks.

At UCLA, scientists are working on the use of the EEG to control machines. To give it a trivial application, a spiritualist could use the waves to make a table levitate and  to give it the serious application envisioned by the Pentagon, a gun could fire by pure cerebral reflex, bypassing the body's motor system.

So far, this work has been conducted solely in the laboratory, with a subject who has electrodes attached to his scalp thinking an object through a maze. Scientists say the maze experiment works, heightening hopes for the project.

Other applications of the EEG may come much sooner. It may be only a matter of time before the machines will be able to read a person's brain waves to determine just what he is thinking.

Within two to five years, the Advanced Research Projects Agency hope to test the EEG-computer hookups in a wide range of military uses ranging from pilot training to interpretation of satellite photos of earth.

In the airplane cockpit it could work like this:  

The pilot's brain waves are read by electrodes placed in his radio earphones. A small special-purpose computer scans the peaks and valleys of the EEG to determine what the pilot is concentrating on and what he is ignoring.

If the pilot should intentionally put his plane into a dive, the computer would let it pass. But if he took a potentially hazardous action through inattention, the computer would alert him.

Scientists at the University of Illinois-the lead institution on the project-expect to test the system in Link Trainers within two years and in airplanes within five years. It then might take several years more before the system could be produced in quantity.

George H. Heilmeier, director of the research agency, dropped tantalizing hints about the EEG program in his annual report to Congress. Although he has provided few details, enough has been said about the program to raise some questions.

For example, could these systems be used to read the minds of prisoners of war or to pick the brains of unsuspecting American citizens. Highly unlikely, agency scientists say.

For one thing, the EEG must be individually calibrated. Brain-wave graphs mean different things for different persons. So it is necessary to obtain a baseline graph by having each individual think a specific series of thoughts.

"It is quick and easy to make the calibration but it must be done for each individual." one scientist explained.

Besides, under present programs, it is necessary to place electrodes on the individual's head. It does not hurt but it could scarcely be done secretly.

At MIT, however, scientists are studying magnetic brain waves that can produce graphs much like the electrical brain waves now being measured.

Scientists for the research agency say it may be possible to pick up magnetic waves a foot or two from the subject's head, perhaps by placing a receiver in the back of a chair.

Could these waves be projected over distances greater than a few feet?

"We are now talking about a foot or several feet," one scientist said. "But the research agency has a pretty good idea of what it could be doing in the 1980s.

At the University of Illinois, the research is concentrating on two possible applications--as an aid to pilots and as help for teachers.

The scientists assume that the aircraft of tomorrow will be even more automated than those of today. This means the pilot will have to make numerous decisions about the use of equipment under his command.

The research agency said the objective of the brain-wave research was to provide a system to help the pilot when he needed it and leave him alone when he did not.

Another possible application of the new technology is to give a pilot a preflight checkout. The researchers think that relatively soon they will be able to determine if anxiety or fatigue is likely to impair a flyer's effectiveness.

In the classroom, the EEG can discover how a student learns and when he is most likely to learn. It can also advise teachers about the best way to teach more to the student.

For instance, a student taking a multiple-choice test now can be graded only right or wrong. If he misses a question, the teacher can increase the emphasis on the subject so he will get it right the next time.

But scientists for the research agency believe that within two years or so a student can be given a multiple-choice test while hooked into an EEG machine. The machine can tell the difference between a 'right' answer based on knowledge and one that was merely a lucky guess. It can tell also if a student was dead certain about an answer that proved to be wrong-a result that calls for the greatest attention from the teacher to end the misunderstanding.

The research agency is interested in the way the EEG can be used to improve computer-based teaching programs. at present, the agency's researchers say, computer lesson plans can be set up only on a trial and error basis.

The agency expects an EEG hookup to show which lessons are effective and which are not.

At Stanford, scientists are studying EEG charts to determine the part of the bran that is in use when persons are most successful in remembering pictures or graphs.

In theory, everyone has "photographic memory" some of the time. If it can be determined when a person is most likely to remember the details of a picture, it should help in interpretation of photo reconnaissance.

Interpretation of satellite photos involves the quick recognition of changes in a pattern from one day to the next. Scientists for the research agency say that, if the Stanford project is successful, technicians can be shown the photos only when their brains are most receptive.

At the nearby Stanford Research Institute, a private firm previously associated with the university, scientists are testing a theory that the brain's two hemispheres perform separate functions

The work of an air traffic controller, for instance, may be governed entirely by one of the brain's hemispheres. By attaching several controllers to EEG machines, it is possible to direct the work to the controller whose brain is most ready to handle it at any particular time.


Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

Mind-Altering Microwaves
Soviets Studying Invisible Ray
November 22,1976

A newly declassified U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency report say-extensive Soviet research into microwaves might lead to methods of causing disoriented human behavior, nerve disorders or even heart attacks. "Soviet scientists are fully aware of the biological effects of the low-level microwave radiation which might have offensive weapons application," say the report, based on an analysis of experiments conducted in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

According to the study, this research work suggests the potential for the development of a number of antipersonnel applications."

Microwave beams are the electronic basis of radar and are widely used for relaying long distance telephone calls. Other common sources of microwaves include television transmitters.

A copy of the study was provided by the agency to the Associated Press in response to a request under the Freedom of Information Act. The Pentagon agency refused to release some portions of the study, saying they remain classified on national security grounds.

The report made no direct mention of the Soviet microwave bombardment of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow where despite strong American protests the radiation continues, though at reduced levels.

Up to now, the view most widely accepted among State Department officials in Washington has been that the Soviets appear to be using the microwave beams to foil sophisticated U.S. electronic intelligence gathering equipment at the embassy.

The State Department issued an administrative source on Nov. 12 declaring Moscow "an unhealthy post," but no link was officially drawn between this move and the radiation situation. Department spokesmen insist that medical tests have found no adverse health effects attributable to the microwaves.

The Soviets have denied beaming any radiation at the embassy, contending that the microwaves are simply part of the normal background radiation found in any major city.

The Pentagon agency's report, distributed within the government last March said that biological effects which could alter anti-personnel uses is the phenomenon known as microwave hearing.

"Sounds and possibly even words which appear to be originating intracranially (within the head) can be induced by signal modulation at very low average power densities," the study said. It added that "combinations of frequencies and other signal characteristics to produce other neurological effects may be feasible in several years."

The report concluded that Soviet research in this area has great potential for development into a system for disorienting or disrupting the behavior patterns of military or diplomatic personnel. It could be used equally as well as an interrogation tool.

...Soviets have also studied various changes in body chemistry and functioning of the brain resulting from exposure to microwaves and other frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

One physiological effect which has been demonstrated is heart seizure. It said that this has been accomplished experimentally in frogs by synchronizing the pulses of a microwave signal with the animals heart beat and beaming the radiation at the chest area.

The document added that a frequency probably could be found which would provide sufficient penetration of the chest wall of humans to accomplish the same effect-heart attacks.

The report said that another potential antipersonnel use. ...microwaves could be used to effect the blood-brain barrier, which regulates the exchange of vital substances between brain cells and the circulatory system.


Oakland Tribune

November 8, 1994
More Evidence of human radiation...
by Les Blumenthal

A presidential commission says it has, at leas, circumstantial evidence the CIA engaged in Cold War human radiation experiments, but the agency steadfastly denies it had any involvement.

The experiments represent one of the darkest sides of the Cold War, and the secrets have been, and continue to be, closely held be? and the veil of national security.

The committee, appointed by President Clinton earlier this year to report on the experiments and make possible recommendations on the thorny issue of compensation, asked half a dozen or so government agencies to review millions of documents dating back to the 1940s.

In addition to the CIA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, as keeper of Atomic Energy Commission documents, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Veterans Affairs and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration all searched their files. A sketchy picture of their involvement in the experiments has begun to emerge.

The committee, in a report marking the halfway point of its year-long effort, said is has discovered human radiation experiments may have been far more widespread than originally thought.

A 1986 congressional study, considered the most exhaustive review to date, found evidence of dozens of experiments, and according to estimates earlier this year, about 1,000 people or so were involved.

The committee, however, has found firm evidence of about 400 experiments and fragmentary evidence of an additional 100. Up to 23,000 people may have been involved.

In addition, the committee has evidence intentional radiation releases may have numbered in the hundreds rather than the 13 previously thought. Whether there were more releases at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Washington state than jut the infamous Green Run of 1949 remains unclear. The committee has asked the departments for more information on Hanford as it prepares for a Nov.21 meeting in Spokane.

  Classified information

  Much of the information on the intentional releases remains classified, and the committee remains uncertain whether there will be public access to it. Even though the releases are thought to date back 30,40 or 50 years, the departments cite national security in denying information to the committee.

The CIA, with its black budget and cloak-and-dagger image, was assumed to have been deeply involved in the radiation experiments.

The agency, however, said no.

"To date, CIA has found no records or other information indicating that it conducted or sponsored human radiation experiments," the committee said in its interim report.

...The committee, however, said is has evidence CIA officers took part in Pentagon groups in which human radiation experiments were discussed and planned.

During the 1950s, the CIA conducted an "extensive" human experimentation program to find ways to control behavior using drugs, psychological methods and other means.

...But some of the documents unearthed by the advisory committee hint at more sinister projects.

A 1963 CIA Inspector General report said MKULTRA was "concerned with research and development of chemical, biological and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations...


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