UC Davis Electrical Engineering Student Report
1. Current feasibility of antipersonnel
electromagnetic weapons on the battlefield and
2. Current feasibility of remote surreptitious
tracking and targeting of humans via satellite
by Zhijun Wei, UC Davis electrical engineering student,
with background information
by Cheryl Welsh, director, Mind Justice
A special thanks to Allen Barker, Bob Dunn, Ted Jackson, Julianne McKinney and Susan Saylor for their significant contributions to background information.
Mind Justice Home
Table of Contents
- Zhijun Wei evaluates 1988 German think tank article on battlefield use of antipersonnel electromagnetic weapons. Wei concludes; "In order to have enough energy to reach the target, high power sources and highly directional antenna are key technologies. The weapons described below are possible (and provide a glimpse of what future warfare may be like)."
- Zhijun Wei on detecting brain signals remotely. Detecting brain signals is possible at lesser distances and very challenging from satellite.
- Zhijun Wei on feasibility of remote targeting of humans via satellite. Remote targeting is possible at battlefield distances but is questionable from a satellite.
- Satellite surveillance technology; extremely advanced, classified and well-funded since 1940s.
- Remote sensing of humans is a 2003 goal of U.S. Special Operations Command. One of the rare times this goal has been cited. Surreptitious human surveillance is classified and controversial.
- Sophisticated remote mind control capabilities are classified and controversial. How advanced the capabilities are is not known but powerful battlefield and mind control weapons are scientifically feasible today.
- New research on targeting the brain indicates electromagnetic brain communication is a scientifically valid theory.
- Government goals of developing electromagnetic brain cognition and non-invasive brain to brain communication devices.
- Nonlethal and information weapons programs in 2005; reports of excessive secrecy and little accountability. Ethical abuses are being reported with recommendations of further study, discussion and regulation.
- Remote surveillance and NLWs (Nonlethal weapons); ethical concerns need to be studied and debated by experts and the public, ethicists conclude.
- How real and/or imminent is the possibility of sophisticated and surreptitious remote mind control? A summary.
- Experts warn of a lack of study and legislation for surveillance technologies and nonlethal weapons; a call for public and professional discussions, legislation and regulation. What can be done now.
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Jose Delgado "was among the world's most acclaimed and controversial neuroscientists in the early 1970s, according to an article on brain chips in the October, 2005 Scientific American. The article explained that in the mid-1980s an article in the magazine Omni and documentaries by the BBC and CNN cite Delgado's work as circumstantial evidence that the U.S. and Soviet Union might have secretly developed methods for remotely modifying people's thoughts. Noting that "the power and precision of electromagnetic
pulses decline rapidly with distance" and "how complex information is encoded in the brain [is] a goal that neuroscientists are far from achieving.", Delgado dismisses these mind-control claims as "science fiction".
It turns out the answer to the question of whether remote government mind control is scientifically feasible today is not that simple. Sophisticated mind control, i.e. thought reading, implanting thoughts, manipulating emotions, etc. is considered science fiction but this conclusion completely ignores the large classified mind control government research known to exist. In addition, mind control is much more advanced than generally believed. For example, in the Scientific American article, Delgado delineated
the mind control issue into therapeutic 'mind control' which Delgado found to be unreliable in humans and nontherapeutic 'mind control' in which Delgado's research was successful and 'could control subjects' minds and bodies with the push of a button."
The question of whether remote human surveillance is scientifically feasible is also generally considered to be science fiction. This conclusion also ignores the large classified government research known to exist in this area. Again, remote human surveillance is also much more advanced than generally believed. A closer look reveals that this field is rapidly changing. A Spring 2003, IEEE Technology and Society Magazine article entitled 'Geoslavery' by Jerome E. Dobson and Peter F. Fisher illustrated possible
human rights abuse from the misuse of satellite targeting and surveillance technologies.
The IEEE article continued; "Geographic information systems (GIS) technologies, including Location Based Services (LBS) continuously fed by earth coordinate data streams derived from the Global Positioning System (GPS), recently have given rise to new consumer products advertised for tracking humans as well as animals. It is well established scientifically that humans can be tracked via satellite with a transponder, "a wristband to be locked to the individual enabling tracking of all movements,
for prisoners, children and senior citizens."
The IEEE article then characterized recent news of rats trained to be remotely controlled by direct electronic stimulation of the brain from up to 500m and concluded that "linking this to a GIS with a digital map and GPS location information is almost trivial technically."
Geoslavery as defined in this article is "a practice in which one entity,
the master coercively or surreptitiously monitors and exerts control over
the physical location of another individual, the slave." The article
described a scenario of monitoring and also remote control by sending a
command transmitted instantaneously to the transponder, which would
administer punishment or an electronic form of geoslavery. No products that
deliver punishment are known to currently exist, according to the article.
The main issue was described as a lack of restrictions on commercial
monitoring products and a lack of legal remedies for abuses involving this
Zhijun Wei is a UC Davis electrical engineering student hired by Mind
Justice to answer the question of whether humans could be remotely targeted
without a transponder, directly via a satellite. Without an implant or
transponder, the possibility of surreptitious surveillance would be a
serious concern. Zhijun Wei analyzed the scientific literature to determine
whether the science is feasible for a human to be tracked via satellite
without a transponder. Zhijun Wei also evaluated one battlefield
description of electromagnetic weapons. Wei concluded the article
descriptions "provide a glimpse of what future warfare may be like" and that
the descriptions were scientifically valid.
Due to limited time and resources, Zhijun Wei conducted only preliminary research on this topic. But Wei was able to conclude that the science is feasible for remote human surveillance but is extremely challenging directly from a satellite. Wei's analysis involved such broad fields including electrical and biomedical engineering, therefore this report only provides a general overview.
Wei concluded, "it is evident that targeting a human being from a far distance is realizable with current technology. But it is questionable that this can be done from a satellite." Based on Wei's findings, further technical study for the feasibility of remotely tracking human via brain waves and controlling human behavior via magnetic and electromagnetic signals by satellite is strongly recommended.
About Zhijun Wei
Zhijun Wei is currently an international graduate student in Electrical Engineering Department at University of California, Davis. He earned his B.A. in communication engineering in June, 1999 and M.E. in electromagnetic and microwave theory in June, 2002, from Northwestern Polytechnic University, China. He is now working toward his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and expecting to graduate in 2007. His current research is in the field of radio frequency and microwave circuit design, specifically device
modeling and power amplifier design for wireless communication systems. He has one published article.
Z. Wei and A. Pham, "Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) for microwave/millimeter wave multi-layer packaging," IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) Digest, pp. 2273-2276, Philadelphia, PA, June 2003.
The major conclusions.
This report challenges the experts' scientific criticisms of the possibility of the existence of classified remote mind control weapons and technologies today. Still, without the development of new or classified technologies, sophisticated mind control is not scientifically feasible at this time. But facts in this report significantly increase the possibility of advanced weapons. This report will document background information that is rarely reported, for example, that mind control and surreptitious surveillance
are national security priorities. The implications for the public are enormous.
Mind control and surreptitious human surveillance are weapons capabilities and research is very classified and well-funded. Known but classified brain implant and mind control research dates back to the 1950s and known but classified remote surreptitious human tracking and targeting at battlefield distances dates back to the 1990s. Recent government documents include goals to develop mind control and satellite surreptitious human surveillance.
Technology has been available since 1990s for less sophisticated but very important battlefield electromagnetic and mind control weapons. Reported military discussions on deployment to Iraq of directed energy weapons including weapons that cause excruciating pain, blindness, and hearing loss, have started.
2005 articles report abuses of new surveillance technologies and electromagnetic weapons; scientists, reporters and ethicists call for studies, discussion and regulation now. This report includes recommendations on what can be done now.
The serious consequences of classified research.
In Zhijun Wei's report below, he stated that; "Due to availability of literature and classified material on this topic, the report only covers the development of related technologies which may be used to fulfill this purpose." Wei's findings take on new meaning given the national security surrounding the science and technology. A quote which illustrates the effects of national security on physics research in the 1950s can be analogized to the classified science of mind control and surreptitious
human surveillance. Forman, Paul.(1987) Behind Quantum Electronics: National security as basis for physical research in the United States, 1940-1960. HSPS 18:1.
Pg. 170; During the 1950s the cumulative number of announced and available number of papers [that were] properly published in U.S. physics journals [was]-about 50,000-but it was probably only some small percentage of the (unknown) number of security classified reports in physics and its technical applications prepared in that decade.
The Forman quote helps to explain the profound effect classified neuroscience research has on public information. An article entitled Mind Control in the November, 2004 Discover magazine quoted many neuroscientists who did not think mind control was possible in the near future. For example, Bruce McNaughton of the University of Arizona predicted; "Don't count on it, [sophisticated mind reading] in the 21st century, or even in the 22nd," McNaughton has monitored neurons in the hippocampus of rats
as they run through a maze. Once the rat learns to navigate a maze, it's neurons discharge the same patterns whenever it runs the maze. And the rat will sleep and the same firing pattern often unfolds.
This pattern could be said to represent at least partially -the rat's memory of the maze. McNaughton emphasizes that the same maze generated a different firing pattern in different rats; even in the same rat, the pattern changes if the maze is moved to a different room. He thus doubts whether science can compile a dictionary for decoding the neural signals corresponding to human memories.
But a Los Angeles Times article reported that at least some human mind reading experiments have worked, as far back as 1976; "It may be only a matter of time before the machines will be able to read a person's brain waves to determine just what he is thinking." ..."George H. Heilmeier, director of the research agency, [DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Agency] dropped tantalizing hints about the EEG program in his annual report to Congress. Although he has provided few details, enough has been
said about the program to raise some questions."
The article continues; "For example, could these systems be used to read the minds of prisoners of war or to pick the brains of unsuspecting American citizens. Highly unlikely, agency scientists say. "For one thing, the EEG must be individually calibrated. Brain-wave graphs mean different things for different persons. So it is necessary to obtain a baseline graph by having each individual think a specific series of thoughts. "It is quick and easy to make the calibration but it must be done
for each individual." one scientist explained."
As illustrated by the Los Angeles Times article above and by the Forman quote on classified physics papers, neuroscience research concerning mind reading would be classified and not published in neuroscience journals. Mind control and human surveillance are weapons capabilities and national security priorities and to say that mind control and human surveillance are science fiction or a far future capability becomes inaccurate, incomplete and misleading. The general public is completely unaware of this very
negative effect classified research can have on public information. This report challenges the one sided argument against the possibility of advanced remote mind control and surreptitious human surveillance.
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2. Battlefield use of nonlethal electromagnetic weapons.
Because the following article included a relatively detailed scientific summary of the technologies involved in targeting and tracking a human with electromagnetic signals, this section is analyzed first. The 1988 publication, Executive Intelligence Review based in Germany, contains a section on soviet work on electromagnetic pulse weapons based on a survey of discussions with scientists, military officers and strategic analysts, many of whom remained anonymous. This article is one of the few detailed descriptions
of electromagnetic weapons to be found in the military literature and Zhijun Wei was asked to determine if the technology described is based on basic principles of science and is reliable information.
Zhijun Wei comments in italics, "In order to have enough energy to reach the target, high power sources and highly directional antenna are key technologies. The weapons described below are possible (and provide a glimpse of what future warfare may be like)."
Therefore, the section below is a notable overview of the physics and science involved in electromagnetic weapons.
1988, Executive Intelligence Review Special Report, "Electromagnetic-Effect Weapons: The Technology and the Strategic Implications", editor, Michael Liebig, EIR News Service Inc. This publication can be found at the UC Berkeley library or can be ordered from EIR News Service Inc., 317 Pennsylvania Ave. S.E., 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20003 Page 14- 17.
Some ABCs of Electromagnetic Anti-Personnel Weapons by Jonathan Tennenbaum
Much more could be said about non-linear biological effects exploitable by EP weapons(see also other articles in this publication). In this short introduction, however, we want to move on to another key problem of these weapons: how to generate and deliver the destructive action to the target.
This Special Report presents some details on high-power RF and microwave generators, an area of highest priority in Soviet research and development. There are two essential types of devices which can be used in EP weapons: oscillators using beams of electrons or plasmas, and solid state devices.
In electron beam devices, like the magnetron common in older radar technology, or the more advanced relativistic devices like the gyrotron and free electron laser, an electron beam interacts with an electromagnetic field in a resonant cavity, oscillating and "pumping" energy into the field. Other advanced devices use non-linear interactions between an electron beam and plasma, or plasma oscillations directly, to generate high output. The advantage of these types of radiation sources is that their
output energy, power, and power density (ratio of power to size) are theoretically unlimited.
Solid state radar, whose development is driven by the needs of military aircraft and missiles, is one of the fastest advancing areas of electronic technology today. Although solid state devices do not (yet!) reach the very high powers attained by electron beam devices, miniaturization makes it possible to build today complete, highly sophisticated phased-array radars of suitcase-size, with several kilowatts of average output. The principal advantage of this technology is that it permits extremely sophisticated
'tailoring' of pulse shape in space and time, in a compact system with direct coupling to high-speed computers. This is exactly what is needed in order to optimally exploit non-linear biological effects. What is lost in brute power is thus gained in efficiency.
Recent breakthroughs in what is called "high-temperature superconductivity" open up the perspective that both types of EP generation technology-electron beam as well as solid state-are going to undergo revolutionary improvements in the years immediately ahead. The impact of this revolution cannot even be estimated at this time, but it will certainly mean radical reductions in the size of devices having a given electromagnetic "firepower."
Holography and Electromagnetic Warfare
As our discussion of biological effects already indicated, electromagnetic anti-personnel weapons depend essentially on "tuning" the output signal to the target. This goes not only for the frequency and amplitude of the signal, but for its entire space-time "shape." Figure 6, for example, is drawn from thermographs of models of the human body irradiated by RF radiation of the same frequency, but with field geometries. These and other experiments demonstrate that the areas of maximum absorption
of electromagnetic energy inside the body depend on the geometry of the incident wave. By choosing the right geometry, the energy can be focused into any desired area, such as the brain. A sophisticated EP Weapon must thus be able to project a specific geometry of electromagnetic field onto a distant object, [not readable text]... technical details of waveguides and various antenna types, we shall briefly present one of the relevant techniques: the principle of the phased array.
A phased-array antenna consists of an assemblage of many individually controlled emitting (or receiving) elements, placed in a fixed geometrical arrangement. The output field of the array is the sum of the waves emitted by the individual elements. By electronically controlling the relative phases of these individual signals, the output field can be given any desired "shape" and direction, limited only by the wavelength used, the number of elements and the size of the array. The huge Soviet ABM radar
at Krasnoyarsk, for example, contains an 83 meter diameter phased array of thousands of elements. The output can consist of a single, very narrow beam, or hundreds of independently directed beams, all depending on the "phasing" of the elements. This radar can track large numbers of missiles simultaneously, without any mechanical motion of the antenna.
The functioning of phased-array antennae is thus closely related to holography, or three-dimensional photography. In a hologram, photographic plate records interference patterns, corresponding to the phase relationships of laser light reflected from the object. When the holographic plate is illuminated by a laser, the phase relationships are "reconstituted" and the viewer has the impression of seeing a three dimensional object.
The ensemble of elements of a phased-array antenna takes the place of the holographic plate, but at a much longer wavelength than visible light
(centimeters and millimeters instead of fractions of a micrometer). "When operated in a receiving mode, the phased array obtains much more information than an ordinary antenna; like the hologram, it measures entire electromagnetic field geometries, not merely a one dimensional "signal."
The holographic principle underlying phased-array systems points to a potentiality for treating any desired three-dimensional, electromagnetic field distribution around a target object, from a distance, correcting for reflections, obstacles and other interference. Moreover, the field can be transformed and shifted from one location to another in space within a fraction of a second. Thus, an ideal EP-weapon could attack many individual targets, simultaneously or in rapid succession. One or more phased arrays
would be used in receiving and transmitting modes to "lock-on" to selected targets, and determine the necessary geometry of the attack pulses.
To fully exploit such potentialities, the weapon would require for its target-acquisition and beam-control systems, sophisticated high-speed computers, able to perform complex computations of the "inverse-scattering" type. Miniaturized systems of this sort are well within the reach of "fifth generation" computer technology. "Hybrid" digital analog systems would be simpler, smaller, and faster still. There is much overlap in requirements between EP weapons and systems developed
for strategic defense(SDI).
For concrete weapon applications, simpler devices will often suffice and trade-offs can be made among range, output power, extent of threat [not readable text]...
An obvious aspect of defense is to detect, locate, and neutralize weapons before they can be used. Antenna structures of EP weapons are resonant
structures which can be detected in various ways. Spetsnaz deployment of EP weapons can be countered by intercepting the weapons or weapons components in transport, by appropriate surveillance of the areas around potential targets, and by the whole range of countermeasures which can be taken against the spetsnaz groups themselves. ...Of course, the EP weapon declares its existence as soon as it is turned on, and itself becomes vulnerable to rapid counterattack if readiness and appropriate means are at hand.
The famous "Faraday cage" and other forms of electromagnetic shielding can provide some protection against EP weapons, especially if the characteristics of the EP signal are known in advance and countermeasures are devised accordingly. Unfortunately, a sophisticated weapon can "tailor" its pulse to get through nearly any given kind of shielding utilizing non-linear, inverse-scattering techniques and a process known as "self-induced transparency." A Faraday cage under certain
conditions can be transformed into an antenna, focusing the signal on the inside and even enhancing the effect for the unfortunate persons inside.
In theory, biological effects can be offset by creating a controlled "electromagnetic environment" around the target, with the effect of "detuning" the target relative to the anticipated signal of the attacking EP weapon - a kind of "immunization." To realize such potentialities will require a major research effort, but one having important spinoffs for biology and medicine.
The application of holographic principles to EP weaponry has profound implications for the future shape of warfare. The deployment of such weapons and the defense against them cannot be understood in terms of "point-to-point trajectory" concepts associated with conventional firearms and artillery. Actually, even in the past, competent military doctrine has always emphasized the geometries of "fields of fire" generated by overall deployment of mobile
weapons over a given area, as opposed to mere "straight-line" action of an individual weapon. The geometrical aspect becomes much more explicit in the era of EP weaponry, in which "firepower" counts as the ability to control the electromagnetic field geometry on the field of battle, through coordinated deployment and operation of mobile phased arrays and related devices.
The situation could therefore be summed up as follows: in practice, both the use of EP weapons and defense against them is a tricky sophisticated business, if the antagonists are at comparable levels of technology, knowledge, and preparation. A surprise attack against an unprepared enemy is simpler and very devastating. In this respect, EP weapons are no exception to the general rules of warfare.
The 1988 German think tank article cited the future development of superconductive energy sources as a revolutionary development for permitting a more compact electromagnetic antipersonnel weapon for a given fire power. Two recent articles also addressed this problem and the Air Force Research Laboratory predicted an adequate superconductive power source should be available by 2009.
June 25, 2004, Dayton Daily News (Ohio);
Power for advanced weapons. AFRL [Air Force Research Laboratory] is trying to develop superconducting generators that could crank out megawatts of power for airborne lasers, other directed-energy weapons and high-power electronic systems. In a community forum last month, Nielsen, who holds a Ph.D. in plasma physics, said, "Directed energy (today) is like Stealth 20 years ago and precision munitions 10 years ago. Directed energy could change the way we do everything in the military."
September 26, 2004, Dayton Daily News (Ohio), "Wright-Pat nears power breakthrough; Superconducting generator would change air combat" by Timothy Gaffney;
..."We really think it [an electrical system with a superconducting generator] is a technology that is going to be a game-changer," Erno [Lt. Col. JoAnn Erno, chief of the Power Division in AFRL's Propulsion Directorate.] said last week.
The objective of the Multimegawatt Electric Power System program is to demonstrate a five-megawatt system by the end of 2009. ...
Such a system opens the door to so-called directed energy weapons that need megawatts of electric power, from metal-piercing lasers to electromagnetic beams that can disable weapons or shock troops without killing. ...
Superconductors hold the promise of far smaller, lighter and more efficient electric generators and motors. Researchers around the world have been working on the technology for decades. ...
The 1988 German think tank article cited the problem of electromagnetic pulses' decline in power and precision with distance. The article then described scientifically feasible technology to overcome this problem; "The holographic principle underlying phased-array systems points to a potentiality for treating any desired three-dimensional, electromagnetic field distribution around a target object, from a distance, correcting for reflections, obstacles and other interference."
In addition, the following 1990 article refers to existing technology such as truck size generators available today, specially adapted antenna systems, the lower energy levels required for some weapons and the principle of magnetic field concentration. This technology is capable of battlefield distances of hundreds of meters and 15 km. November 1, 1990, International Review of the Red Cross, "The Development of New Antipersonnel Weapons" by Louise Doswald-Beck and Gerald C. Cauderay;
Research work in this field has been carried out in almost all industrialized countries, and especially by the great powers, with a view to using these phenomena for anti-materiel or anti-personnel purposes. Tests have demonstrated that powerful microwave pulses could be used as a weapon in order to put the adversary hors de combat or even kill him. It is possible today to generate a very powerful microwave pulse (e.g., between 150 and 3,000 megahertz), with an energy level of several hundreds of megawatts. Using
specially adapted antenna systems, these generators could in principle transmit over hundreds of metres sufficient energy to cook a meal.
However it is important to mention that the lethal or incapacitating effects which can be expected from weapon systems using this technology can be produced with much lower energy levels. Using the principle of magnetic field concentration, which permits the control of the geometry on the target, by means of antenna systems especially designed for the purpose, the radiated energy can be concentrated on very small surfaces of the human body, for example the base of the brain where relatively low
energy can produce lethal effects.
It seems that with currently available technology, serious consideration could be given to the production of such weapons systems, which could have a range of approximately 15 km and could sweep a zone with a series of fast pulses. Unprotected soldiers within this zone could be put hors de combat or killed within a few seconds.
Such a weapon could be installed on a truck and would therefore be easily transportable.
A 2005 Washington Post article also corroborates Wei's analysis of the need for compact power source and problems with aim and controllable effects of electromagnetic weapons. In addition, the article makes recommendations for serious evaluation of new weapons by policy makers. October 6th 2005, "National and Homeland Security Microwaves, Lasers, Retired Generals For Sale" by William M. Arkin;
...The buzz on the floor was "directed energy" laser, high-powered microwaves, and acoustic weapons that are getting a boost from the prolonged fighting in Iraq. ...Highly controversial directed energy weapons have been pushed for almost two decades as the next silver bullet. It's been two decades because along the way, they have run into complications, some having to do with the technology itself; aim and controllable effects, compact power sources, military ruggedness...
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3. Zhijun Wei on detecting brain signals remotely.
The sections in italics were written by Zhijun Wei. The non-italic print was compiled and written by Cheryl Welsh.
Unclassified information on the biological basis of consciousness is advancing. The July 1, 2005 Science Magazine included a special section entitled "What Don't We Know?" on 125 science questions. "What is the Biological Basis of Consciousness?" is among the first of several questions listed. The article described current research; "So far, however, although theories abound, hard data are sparse." But science writers of journals including the Science Magazine and Scientific
American ignore or are unaware of past classified neuroscience and mind control weapons research. The implications of classified research are profound and similar to classified atomic bomb research. Should the biological basis of consciousness be a classified military weapon without any public input? Evidence suggests this is exactly what has happened.
As Dr. Warren McCulloch, a neuropsychiatrist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, described below, government agencies were funding and looking for the biological basis of consciousness in the 1950s and the work was controversial. The government's concern for national security priorities of the cold war and the funding of classified programs by eminent scientists of the time is generally overlooked today. As McCulloch described, the work was considered scientifically feasible and promising for military
'Embodiments of Mind' by Warren S. McCulloch,(1965)MIT Press;
Page 216; Since 1952 Dr. Warren S. McCulloch has been a staff member engaged in the Research Laboratory of Electronics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ..is also well known as one of the founders of the group who have developed Cybernetics. He was Chairman of the Macy Conference on Cybernetics during its life from 1946 to 1951...
"...But Gentleman the title of my paper is not facetious. At the behest of the Mathematical Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research(ONR), I spent two months abroad, questioning "Where is fancy bred?"
...Percival Bailey, who was one of the first to implant electrodes keeps his copy of the Pope's letter in his desk. In Boston Jim White and Bill Sweet have just been blessed, not merely for implanted electrodes, but...So much for implanted electrodes. They are here to stay. Through them we will record activities in structures heretofore inaccessible, locating the womb of Fancy.
...But the work of Antoine Remond was the crowning success of the meeting. Long years ago he had come to my laboratory in Chicago... combined with accumulators that let him use hundreds of repeated stimulations and so raise the signals way above the noise. The resulting maps of the first special derivative on the surface of the head are impressive.
To go from these to the second derivative, which locates the nervous activity as well as possible, is still done by a laborious longhand computation. ...Today it can be done electronically, ...It may take three years to build the gadgets. Remond's work was so impressive that the National Institutes of Health and the European Office, Air Research and Development Command, are now backing it financially,...
...John Lilly failed to show, and I, as his fellow-American, was commanded to speak on a mathematics suited to neurology.
...Between visits to laboratories and lectures to theoretical physicists, engineers, psychiatrists, and physiologist, I found time to work with Sherwood on the third component of the Laplacian of the cerebral cortex.
...But my principal business in England was the study of artificial intelligence.
...When I reached the National Physical Laboratory for Uttley's symposium on "The Mechanization of Thought Processes," ...But what I saw in Russian faces was that their scientists, like ours, know they are confronted by the problem of the Rabbi of Chelm with his Golem,...
The vigil must be endured, even if it entail "Q" clearance. [Q is a US national security clearance.] ...On the landing here, I made my bow to ONR [Office of Naval Research] and began to contact my Human Factors friends in Astronautics. They could use these circuits.
...Let me recapitulate its discoveries. 1. For the good of patients, implanted electrodes are here to stay; and through them, whether psychiatrists like it or not, we will learn where fancy is bred."
McCulloch was a participant of the Macy Foundation sponsored conferences cited above, a conduit for the CIA funding and research. McCulloch was quoted in the 1991 book, Cybernetics Group by Steven Heims, MIT;
Preface; The subject of this book is the series of multidisciplinary conferences, supported by the Macy Foundation and held between 1946 and 1953, to discuss a wide array of topics that eventually came to be called cybernetics.
Pg. 11; ...included several mathematicians (Norbert Wiener, John von Neumann), engineers (Julian Bigelow, Claude Shannon), a neuropsychiatrist (Warren McCulloch), and a polymatic genius (Walter Pitts). Some members of this group had proposed that their concepts useful in engineering and biology,... For lack of a better collective name we shall refer to this group as the cyberneticians, although they would never have used this term themselves.
...Fremont-Smith [of the Josiah Macy Foundation] was so cautious that I got the impression he was anxious to keep something private.
...Much later I learned of the CIA involvement, ...(the Macy Foundation's records have not been open for researchers). At the Macy meetings, as the unedited transcript shows, the political conditions were discussed explicitly from time to time. Some participants were government consultants who worked on "classified" topics kept secret from other researchers; their priorities were such that they skipped attendance at the conferences whenever the government called.
McCulloch described the situation at the beginning of the ninth meeting in 1952; "I would like to say that two things have interfered with our gathering this time. One of those is an increasing source of anxiety to me... Thing after thing that one or another person has wanted to discuss at this meeting has been locked up for "secret." I have no idea how far that process will go in time to come. I know that von Neumann had something he wanted to talk to us about and that it is secret. I know that
some stuff that Bavelas wanted to talk about to us has become secret. And so it goes."
Type and strength of brain signals to be detected.
Zhijun referred to the following information on the type and strength of brain signals to be detected.
- Omni Magazine, February, 1985, 'Mind Fields', Kathleen McAuliffe;
Jose Delgado, internationally famous neuroscientist...with his spectacular demonstrations showing how behavior can be modified by implanting electrodes in the brains of cats, chimps, even humans. ...Researchers have been able to detect EMFs [electromagnetic fields] in the brain and around the dense network of the body's nerves. The earth itself produces such fields. ...The fields Delgado uses are as low as one fiftieth the strength of the earth's own magnetic fields.
Our body would be subject to a more intense bombardment of energy if you stood under a fluorescent light. Yet when the signal is tuned to precise frequencies(with long wave-lengths in roughly the same range as power-line waves), Delgado can do much more than make a monkey sleepy. ...Remarkably, these EMFs are several hundred times below the voltage needed for an electrode to trigger a nerve to fire.
- Becker, Robert O., MD 'Crosscurrents', 1990, St Martin's Press, Page 224;
Since the mid-1970s, Delgado has been director of the premier Spanish neurophysiological laboratory, Centro Ramon y Cajal. ... He has studied the influence of specific frequencies of magnetic fields on the behavior and emotions of monkeys, without using any implanted electrodes or radio receivers. While Delgado did not publish any of this work in the scientific journals, its existence leaked out. In 1984 his lab was visited by a friend of mine, Kathleen McAuliffe, then an editor at Omni magazine.
She was able to observe some of the experiments, and her impressions were subsequently published in the February, 1985 issue of Omni. Using very low-strength ELF magnetic fields, Delgado could deliberately produce either sleep or manic behavior in monkeys. ...McAuliffe was allowed only a peek behind the curtain; most of the questions I had asked her to put to him remain unanswered."
- The Body Electric, Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life by Robert Becker, M.D., and Gary Selden, William Morrow, N.Y. 1985, Page 240-1;
Then, in 1964, a solid state physicist named Brian D. Josephson invented the electronic device now called the Josephson junction, a simple item that won him the Nobel Prize. Basically it consists of two semiconductors connected so that current can oscillate in a controlled fashion between them. ...This apparatus called a superconducting quantum interferometric device, or SQUID for short, is a magnetic field detector thousands of times more sensitive than any previously known.
...The SQUID has also confirmed the existence of the direct-current perineural system [DC potentials in the nervous system in which small currents from outside could affect brain function, page 85], which, especially in the brain, produces steady DC magnetic fields one billionth the strength of earth's field of about one-half gauss.
Detecting brainwaves among background signals.
The question of detecting the very weak brain signals among background noise is a common scientific problem and is frequently cited as a limitation to remote targeting and tracking of an object by its electromagnetic signal. The following article and others cited by Zhijun Wei below illustrates that this limitation has been addressed in this 1980s research below.
Robert Becker, M.D., and Gary Selden, 'The Body Electric, Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life', William Morrow, N.Y. 1985, Page 240-1
By 1975, Drs. Samuel Williamson, Lloyd Kaufman, and Douglas Brenner of NYU had succeeded in measuring the head's field without a shielded enclosure, even amid the electromagnetic noise of downtown Manhattan. More important, they've found that the magnetoencphalogram (MEG) - a recording of changes in the brain's field analogous to the EEG - is often a more accurate reflection of mental activity than the EEG. Because the magnetic field passes right through the dura, skull, bones, and scalp without being diffused,
and MEG locates the current source more accurately than EEG measurements. The NYU group has since begun correlating magnetic events with well-known cerebral responses, such as the reaction of cells in the visual cortex to simple patterns and flashes of light.
When the brain reacts to any stimulus, it produces a wave of electrical activity that's contained in the EEG. It's invisible in a standard EEG recording because so much else is always going on in the brain at the same time. However, when one simple stimulus is repeated many times and the EEG tracings are averaged by computer, the particular electrical response to that one stimulus-called an evoked potential-can be tested out.
Several research groups have slowly built up a small vocabulary of wave forms with specific meanings, including a 'surprise wave', an 'intention wave', and a 'double-take wave,' which appears when the mind briefly tries to make sense of somatic nonsense, as in the statement "She took a drink from the radio."
...Since every reaction and thought seems to produce an evoked potential, the DC system seems directly involved in every phase of mental activity. At the very least, the electric sheath acts as a bias control, a sort of background stabilizer that keeps the nerve impulses flowing in the proper direction and regulates their speed and frequency. But the analog structure probably plays a more active role in the life of the mind. Variations in the current from one place to another in the perineural system apparently
form part of every decision, every interpretation, every command, every vacillation, every feeling, and every word of interior monologue, conscious or unconscious, that we conduct in our heads.
No through wall signal detection; new technology challenges this frequently cited scientific roadblock to remote surveillance.
This is a frequently raised technological roadblock against the possibility of human surveillance technology and is included here to illustrate interest and progress in more advanced classified capabilities.
July 7, 2003, Scotsman, 'British troops try out 'James Bond' style X-rayspecs' by Kevin Hurley;
British troops have been carrying out secret tests on a revolutionary new device that allows them to 'see through walls, scientists have revealed. ...It transmits low-frequency radar pulses that can pass through the walls and detect objects and movements. The equipment can see through walls up to nearly a foot thick and the device is being engineered to have a 75 ft range. ...A Ministry of Defense spokeswoman declined to comment on the device. She said: "I am aware of what you are talking about but it is
classified information therefore I can't say anything."
Zhijun Wei, in italics
From this research spanning over thirty years, one can safely conclude that it is scientifically possible to remotely detect brain signals within a matter of feet but it is very challenging with distance increased, especially from satellite.
Like the light, the intensity of the field decreases in following the inverse-distance law: when the distance doubles, the signal becomes half less strong. This is true in free space but on earth this attenuation is much stronger due to obstacles placed between emitter and receiver and to the fact that traveling around the earth radio waves lost their energy as they forced to bend to follow the earth curvature.
A second effect is related to ground properties. A poor ground (low conductivity and dielectric constant) affects also the wave propagation. A third effect is related to absorption by air. Air is composed of different molecules such as oxygen, nitrogen, water, etc. Those molecules have different absorption rate for electromagnetic waves. The signal level degrades also with distance due to this absorption.
The higher the frequency is, the less energy the ionosphere absorbs. Eventually, the electromagnetic waves will penetrate through the ionosphere and reach the space. However, brain waves are possible to be detected from a distance and then be modulated on a high frequency carrier and transmitted to any place on the earth through satellite system with current technology since the higher frequency signals can penetrate atmosphere and be received by satellite in space. Below are the citations to indicate
that brain wave has been detected from a distance.
- At MIT, however, scientists are studying magnetic brain waves that can produce graphs much like the electrical brain waves now being measured.
Scientists for the research agency say it may be possible to pick up magnetic waves a foot or two from the subject's head, perhaps by placing a receiver in the back of a chair.
Could these waves be projected over distances greater than a few feet?
"We are now talking about a foot or several feet," one scientist said. "But the research agency has a pretty good idea of what it could be doing in the 1980s. Los Angeles Times, March 29th 1976, Mind Reading Machine Tells Secrets of the Brain Sci-Fi Comes True, Norman Kempster.
- "Scientists have developed a sensor that can record brainwaves without the need for electrodes to be inserted into the brain or even placed on the scalp." BBC News, Remote control brain sensor, November 17, 2002 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2361987.stm
- By 1975, Dr. Samuel Williamson, Loyd Kaufman, and Douglas Brenner of NYU had succeeded in measuring the head's field without a shielded enclosure, even amid the electromagnetic noise of downtown Manhattan. The Body Electric, Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life Robert Becker, M.D., and Gary Selden, William Morrow, N.Y. 1985, Page 240-1
As for modulation and transmission from ground station, it has been already proved by existing communication systems like XM satellite radio [Ashley Fantz, "XM Satellite Radio Innovation Center tests limits", Sacramento Bee, August 23,2004, "The 51-year-old product designer with a doctorate in electrical engineering spent nearly two decades at Motorola, creating the company's first cellular phones... And more intriguing, to configure a way to get two massive satellites -one call Rock, the other
Roll- to beam scores of CD-quality radio channels to customers' cars and homes. ...the firm began broadcasting... ], GSM & CDMA mobile phone systems, etc.
Directly detecting weak ELF signals on ground from space is becoming reality at this time. One of example is a very small satellite, aptly named QuakeSat and launched in 2003, which will provide ELF earthquake precursor signals from space. It collects the refracted ELF waves in the ionosphere, which propagate along the Earth's magnetic field lines. QuakeSat will use permanent magnets for passive attitude control to orient the QuakeSat close to the magnetic field line. A 0.701 m deployable payload boom contains
the commandable ELF magnetometer, which collects raw ELF data. For more info see http://www.quakefinder.com./SSC_PAPER_SSC02-IX-6.pdf
As it is mentioned above that the signal level of brain waves is a million times weaker than that of the earth magnetic fields, the direct detection of brain wave from space is thus very challenging and difficult with today's technology due to a matter of signal and noises. (quote from confidential emailed file, Nasa scientist, [While theoretically possible,[to detect brain waves from a satellite], this must remain in the "very challenging" category.])
Another example is the detection of Ocean's magnetic fields by satellite. Research in the current issue of the journal science has shown for the first time that the ocean's magnetic fields can be detected via satellite. The research also raises the potential to use the oceans' magnetic fields as a means of tracking large-scale ocean circulation patterns. [Christian Science Monitor, January 16, 2003, "New Light on a dark patch of cosmic history" by Peter N. Spotts. "...These fields are weak-on
the order of one-thousandth of Earth's magnetic field."]
It is seen that brain waves are extreme low frequencies (0 - 3kHz). Practically, ELF are only used by some submarines and to carry AC over power lines. Measurements of ELF electric and magnetic fields are performed in order to characterize emissions from sources and exposure of persons or experimental subjects. The strength of the electric field is measured in units of volts per metre (V/m). The strength of the magnetic field is measured in units of amperes per metre (A/m) but is usually expressed in terms
of the magnetic flux density measured in units of tesla (T) or microtesla (mT). Another unit, which is commonly used to measure the magnetic field is the gauss (G) or milligauss (mG), where 1 G is equivalent to 10-4 T (or 1 mG = 0.1 T).
The electromagnetic waves with free space wavelength longer than 200m or frequency below 1500kHz tend to propagate along the surface of the earth. In other words, it is called ground waves. Ground waves travel between two limits, the earth and the ionosphere, which acts like a duct. Since the duct curves with the earth, the ground wave will follow. The earth is rounded so there will be resonance, called the Schumann resonances with peaks at frequencies between 8 and 32 Hz. Their electric components are
around 0.01V/m, with magnetic fields of 1-10nT. This may contrast with the earth's much larger static geomagnetic field around 50 µT(0.5 gauss).
LF electric and magnetic fields can be produced by other natural and artificial sources. Naturally occurring ELF fields can be associated with atmospheric processes such as ionospheric currents, thunderstorms and lightning. Artificial sources are the dominant sources of ELF fields and are usually associated with the generation, distribution and use of electricity at the frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. Powerlines, electrical wiring and common appliances (electric blankets, televisions, hair-dryers, computers,
etc.) all produce ELF electric and magnetic fields.
Electric fields around most household appliances and equipment typically do not exceed 500 V/m and magnetic fields typically do not exceed 150 uT(1500mG). Within generating stations and substations electric fields are in excess of 25 kV/m and magnetic fields in excess of 2 mT (20,000 mG) may be found. These signal levels are much greater than that of biomagnetic activities. The signal level of biomagnetic activity ranges from fT to nT. However, the signal level of brain wave changes with the state of
brain. But it is still at least a million times weaker than the earth magnetic field.
Due to the time limitation, this report does not differentiate magnetic issues from ELF issues.
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4. Feasibility of remote targeting of humans via satellite by Zhijun Wei.
Technology for targeting a human within several feet compiled by Cheryl Welsh.
What type of signal may be most effective on the human body? Zhijun Wei referred to the following articles for signal parameters for targeting a human being.
"Adey's research suggests that the best way to get an ELF signal into an animal is to make it a pulse modulation of a high-frequency radio signal." "The Body Electric" by Becker, Robert O. MD and Seldin, Gary, 1985, page 325.
November 1, 1990, International Review of the Red Cross, "The Development of New Antipersonnel Weapons" by Louise Doswald-Beck and Gerald C. Cauderay,
However it is important to mention that the lethal or incapacitating effects which can be expected from weapon systems using this technology can be produce with much lower energy levels. Using the principle of magnetic field concentration, which permits the control of the geometry on the target, by means of antenna systems especially designed for the purpose, the radiated energy can be concentrated on very small surfaces of the human body, for example the base of the brain where relatively low
energy can produce lethal effects.
...Research work has also revealed that pathological effects close to those induced by highly toxic substances could be produced by electromagnetic radiation even at very low power, especially those using a pulse shape containing a large number of different frequencies.
...Some research seem to have confirmed that low-level electromagnetic fields, modulated to be similar to normal brainwaves, could seriously affect brain function. Experiments with pulsed magnetic fields carried out in animals have reportedly produced specific effects such as inducing sleep and triggering anxiety or aggressiveness, depending on the modulation of the frequency used.
It is, on the other hand, well known that lethal effects can also be produced by using higher power levels than those used for the experiments on behavior modification. An anti-personnel weapon based on such biophysical principles could produce similar effects to those of a nerve gas, but would have no secondary effects and leave no lasting trace.
Zhijun Wei comments in italics.
There have been reported stories [scientific articles cited above] about remote targeting of human being from a far distance. From those stories, it is evident that targeting human being from a far distance is realizable with current technology. But it is questionable that this can be done from a satellite.
Among them, the Washington Post reported that the soviets might be close to a prototype short-range tactical RF weapon and they had used such weapons to kill goats at 1 kilometer's range in 1987.
Tests have demonstrated that powerful microwave pulses could be used as a weapon in order to put the adversary hors de combat or even kill him. It is possible today to generate a very powerful microwave pulse (e.g., between 150 and 3,000 megahertz), with an energy level of several hundreds of megawatts. Using specially adapted antenna systems, these generators could in principle transmit over hundred metres sufficient energy to cook a meal. (International Review of the Red Cross, November 1, 1990, Louise
Doswald-Beck and Gerald C. Cauderay, The Development of New Antipersonnel Weapons)
However, remote targeting a human being from satellite is technically extremely challenging although it is theoretically sound. Due to availability of literature and classified material on this topic, the report only covers the development of related technologies which may be used to fulfill this purpose.
It is obvious that satellite has to have a super high power source because the target is thousands of kilometers away. In addition to that, there is significant attenuation of microwave signals along the path. High resolution antenna is another important component in satellite targeting due to its small interference.
Technology and terminology by Zhijun Wei.
Satellite communication systems have become instrumental in allowing information to be accessed more easily throughout world. Satellite signals are able to link many users simultaneously throughout a large geographical area or provide communication to remote communities. Many facets of our daily lives are controlled by satellite communications as most television and many telephone signals are relayed across the world by numerous satellite systems.
The main components of a satellite communications system consist of a transmitting earth station, a satellite acting as a relay or repeater station, and a receiving earth station. The information is first encoded electronically, modulated onto high frequency electromagnetic waves and then sent through the satellite communications system. These waves, known as microwave, have frequencies in excess of one billion cycles per second, or 1GHz. Microwave frequencies are used to transmit information in this
system for five distinct reasons. Firstly, higher frequency electromagnetic waves have the potential for relaying larger quantities of information because as the frequency increases, any bandwidth around a center frequency becomes a smaller fraction of that operating frequency.
Secondly, due to the requirement that uplink antennas be able to aim a highly directional beam towards an extremely small target in space, EM waves can be better focused by an antenna substantially larger than the wavelength of the radiation it is managing. Thirdly, Microwave transmissions to satellites or between earth-based line of sight relay stations are not as susceptible to noise from atmospheric disturbances as are lower frequency transmissions. Finally, most important is the ability of microwave
frequencies to pass through the upper atmosphere in outer space.
A radar's function is to send out a beam or pulse of microwave energy and receive some of that energy scattered back from an object. When a radar's radiation hits the target. It is scattered or absorbed by that object. Fortunately, microwave radiation, for the most part, is not totally absorbed by the object. What proportion of that scattering is returned to the radar is called the reflectivity value. Below are the paragraphs briefly summarizing the basic theory behind scattering?
There are two basic scattering: Rayleigh and Mie scattering. Rayleigh scattering is a theory that describes scattering characteristics that are smaller than the wavelength of radiation that they encounter. Objects of this size do not scatter all wavelengths evenly. Alternately, Mie scatterers are larger in size and are able to scatter ALL wavelengths in all directions.
Phased array antenna
A phased-array antenna consists of an assemblage of many individually controlled emitting (or receiving) elements, placed in a fixed geometrical arrangement. The output field of the array is the sum of the waves emitted by the individual elements. By electronically controlling the relative phases of these individual signals, the output field can be given any desired "shape" and direction, limited only by the wavelength use, the number of elements and the size of the array.
Here just list three periodic signal shapes, which are often used in electronic systems. They are sine wave, square wave, and sawtooth wave. These three signal shapes are always described by amplitude and frequency. The amplitude is merely the maximum displacement of the signal from zero. The frequency with which a signal repeats itself is measured in cycles per second (cps), more familiarly known as hertz (Hz). Sine wave is a smooth waveform whose spectrum consists of a single frequency. Square wave is a
rectangular waveform that alternates between a positive value and a negative value. Its frequency spectrum includes all of the odd harmonics and has higher harmonic content than a triangle wave. The sawtooth wave is a waveform consisting of a periodic ramp. Its frequency spectrum includes all of the odd and even harmonics.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal
The summation of the electrical activity caused by the random firing of billions of individual neurons in the brain is represented by the EEG signal. A typical bandwidth of this type of EEG ranges from 0.5 to about 100Hz, with the amplitudes ranging from 2 to 100mV. Five different states or types of brainwaves have been characterized by neurologists. They are gamma, beta, alpha, theta and delta.
Brainwave (neurophysiology) is defined as rapid fluctuations of voltage between parts of the cerebral cortex that are detectable with an electroencephalograph.
For further information;
Monmonier, Mark, "Spying with Maps: surveillance technologies and the future of privacy", 2002, University of Chicago Press. Discusses various new surveillance technologies.
Purcell, Edward M., Electricity and Magnetism, New York : McGraw-Hill, 1985. A great book for those who want to pursue the physics of E&M.
Zhijun Wei made the following final conclusions.
"It is scientifically possible to remotely detect brain signals within a matter of feet but it is very challenging with distance increased, especially from satellite."
"Brain waves are possible to be detected from a distance and then be modulated on a high frequency carrier and transmitted to any place on the earth through satellite system with current technology since the higher frequency signals can penetrate atmosphere and be received by satellite in space."
"From those stories, [scientific articles listed in report], it is evident that targeting human being from a far distance is realizable with current technology. But it is questionable that this can be done from a satellite."
The remainder of the report has been compiled and analyzed by Cheryl Welsh.
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5. Satellite surveillance technology; extremely advanced, classified and well-funded since 1940s.
Since human surveillance capabilities as a national security priority are rarely reported by the press, evidence is provided here. As seen in the following 1976 and 1990 articles, the publicly known science of remote human surveillance is sparse, controlled by the military and is being developed for weapons use in extremely classified programs.
Zhijun Wei cited this article describing classified military research and remote detection (necessary for remote surveillance) of brain waves for brain reading. Los Angeles Times, March 29th 1976, Mind Reading Machine Tells Secrets of the Brain Sci-Fi Comes True, Norman Kempster.
George H. Heilmeier, director of the [DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency] research agency, dropped tantalizing hints about the EEG program in his annual report to Congress. Although he has provided few details,...
At MIT, however, scientists are studying magnetic brain waves that can produce graphs much like the electrical brain waves now being measured.
Scientists for the research agency say it may be possible to pick up magnetic waves a foot or two from the subject's head, perhaps by placing a receiver in the back of a chair.
Could these waves be projected over distances greater than a few feet?
"We are now talking about a foot or several feet," one scientist said. "But the research agency has a pretty good idea of what it could be doing in the 1980s.
The very few, subsequent articles to the 1976 Los Angeles Times article report similar classified military research on remote human surveillance and targeting. As cited several times above, November 1, 1990, International Review of the Red Cross 279, "The Development of New Antipersonnel Weapons" by Louise Doswald-Beck and Gerald C. Cauderay;
Research work in this field has been carried out in almost all industialized countries, and especially by the great powers, with a view to using these phenomena for anti-materiel or anti-personnel purposes. Tests have demonstrated that powerful microwave pulses could be used as a weapon in order to put the adversary hors de combat or even kill him. It is possible today to generate a very powerful microwave pulse (e.g., between 150 and 3,000 megahertz), with an enegry level of several hundreds of megawatts. Using
specially adapted antenna systems, these generators could in principle transmit over hundreds of metres sufficient energy to cook a meal.
...In spite of the rarity of publications on this subject, and the fact that it is usually strictly classified information, research undertaken in this field seems to have demonstrated that very small amounts of electromagnetic radiation could appreciably alter the functions of living cells.
Like mind control research, human surveillance capabilities are surrounded in ethical controversy and privacy concerns. Unlike mind control, much less public research on human surveillance has been conducted. Given national security priorities, whether developed now or in the future, human surveillance would be a very classified area of research. The Los Angeles Times and the International Review of the Red Cross articles confirm that classified human surveillance capabilities have been developed. An educated
guess is that sophisticated mind control and remote human surveillance may already be extremely advanced.
Background information on satellite surveillance; technological problems and breakthroughs.
Satellite surveillance technologies have a long history of development, are one of the deepest secrets of the nation and have enjoyed billion dollar budgets. A December 9th 2004, Sacramento Bee article entitled 'Four Senators criticize mysterious spy program', described a program "almost certainly a spy satellite system, perhaps with technology to destroy potential attackers with 'enormous expense and alleged danger to national security." James Bamford commented "In the intelligence community,
it's so hard to get a handle on what's going on, particularly with the satellite programs." Another expert agreed "It's hard to think of most any satellite program, at least the standard ones, as dangerous to national security," said Jeffrey Richelson, who wrote a highly regarded book about CIA technology in 2001."
The 2001 Richelson book is quoted below to show examples of detecting extremely weak signals from space. How advanced this technology is, cannot be determined because the technology is so highly classified, funded and regulated by the government. The capability of technologies to detect and target the brain would seem to be, by analogy the same technology for detecting weak signals of moving targets and targeting weak signals towards a moving target.
The Richelson book illustrates how advanced and well funded the very related technologies were and how previously unknown capabilities were developed by eminent US scientists, including William Perry, former U.S. Secretary of Defense.
Tracking and targeting human brain signals may seem like science fiction, but when the problem is reduced to categories such as extremely weak signal detection and signal to noise issues, the science becomes feasible, although extremely daunting from this vantage point. William Perry and others accomplished major scientific breakthroughs including the signal to noise problem encountered with the development of spy satellites. And as seen below in research to gather extremely weak soviet radar signals reflected
from the moon, government agencies were willing to go to extreme technological lengths for national security purposes.
'Wizards of Langley' by Richelson, Jeffrey, 2001;
Page 107; Not long after becoming head of the DS&T, Wheelon was reading a story in the New York Herald Tribune about Syncom, A NASA-DOD-Hughes satellite program. The article discussed what was then a revolutionary means of communications, ...that allowed communication from a ground station to a satellite and then back down to another ground station. ...they [satellites] flew 22,300 miles above various points on the equator, in geostationary orbit.
...It occurred to Wheelon that it might be possible to employ such an approach to intercept signals from key targets and relay them to a U.S. ground station. ...Wheelon assembled some key CIA officials to explore such ideas...
An initial concern was whether such a program was feasible.
Because the telemetry signals were transmitted at very-high and ultra-high frequencies (VHF and UHF), they would not bounce off the atmosphere, as high-frequency communications did, but leak out into space where the satellites would be waiting to scoop them up. But it was feared that the noise from other, and unwanted, transmissions such as television signals would drown the telemetry in an ocean of noise. ...Before proceeding further, Wheelon asked William Perry, who had just left Sylvania's Electronic Defense
Laboratories to form his own company, to study the matter.
Six months later, he reported that the idea was workable.
Perry's work in determining the feasibility of such a satellite would be a key, although unspecified, reason for his winning the CIA's R. V. Jones Award-named after the British physicist who headed the British Secret Intelligence Service's scientific intelligence effort in World War II.
When presented with the idea, both McCone and Carter were supportive, and Lauderdale was tapped as manager of the new program, which was named Rhyolite. ...Lauderdale would become the key figure in transforming the idea into a reality-arriving at work one day with a working model of a French umbrella antenna, which would also serve as model for the Rhyolite antenna.
Page 37; Rather than relying on aircraft or eavesdropping antennae, the project employed an over-the-horizon (OTH) radar to monitor Soviet missile tests. Such radars use the ionosphere as a reflector for high-frequency radio energy and therefore are not limited to the "line-of-sight" restrictions of conventional ground-based radars. OTH radars promised to provide information on missile and aircraft activity up to 3,100 miles away-by bouncing a radio signal off the ionosphere and onto the target and
receiving the reflected signal. The technology has been tested by the CIA, which, along with the Office of Naval Research, shared a U.S.-based radar facility code-named Chapel Bell.
Page 89; In 1965 and 1966, while Kirkenes, Beshahr, and Kabkan were listening to Soviet missile tests, another CIA facility was listening for signals from the moon. Out at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, the CIA was employing a 150-foot dish antenna to monitor the signals of Soviet radars after they had bounced off the earth's only natural satellite.
The "moonbounce" phenomenon had been discovered in 1946, when scientists detected a man-made signal reflected from the moon.
Experiments that followed revealed the extraordinary weakness of such signals. A typical signal received via moonbounce was a billion times weaker than if it were intercepted by an airplane ten miles from the transmitter.
As a result, only very large antennae could effectively hear such signals and distinguish them from other signals.
By the early 1960s, the possibility of exploiting the moonbounce phenomenon was being investigated by a number of agencies. N.C. Gerson of the National Security Agency used the Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in Puerto Rico to intercept moonbounce signals from a Soviet radar operating on the Artic coast.
Along with a member of the Army Security Agency, he produced a three-volume study-Moonbounce Potential from Scooped Antennas. The Air Force also had a moonbounce project, FLOWER GARDEN, which relied on several antennae, including the 250-foot antenna at Jodrell Bank. Other moonbounce collectors were the antennae at the Grand Bahama tracking station, a Navy intercept site at Sugar Grove, West Virginia, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Chesapeake Bay Annex."
Secrecy and satellite remote sensing.
Since the 1940s, remote sensing has been among the deepest secrets of the nation. In a fascinating account, Dr. Cloud explained how one of the highest levels of secret research was carried out with the intent of remaining secret forever. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, Vol. 29, No.3 2002, 'American Cartographic Transformations during the Cold War' by John Cloud;
Page 264; For Leghorn, that left two stances against the Soviet Union, based on the assumption that the Soviet Union would eventually have nuclear weapons as well. The first was mutual forbearance and negotiated peace as an alternative to mutually assured destruction, the policy in force to the present day. The second was to remove the enemy in a pre-emptive nuclear strike. Both options would require superb reconnaissance. [In 1946],
Leghorn noted "for these reasons it is extraordinarily important that means of long-range aerial reconnaissance be devised that cannot be detected". Hence even seemingly innocuous vegetation studies might remain classified in order to conceal sensor capabilities.
Both Katz and Leghorn spent their professional lives involved in the dualities of secrecy and disclosure inherent in observations systems that are vital, yet cannot be detected and should never be revealed. ...In 1949, Katz and Leghorn were named to a committee to "conduct a survey of the electro-magnetic spectrum from the point of view of its applicability to reconnaissance.
Page 267; But the photogrammetry that would eventually provide the extension of this geodetic control was to be based on imagery from systems "that cannot be detected," in Leghorn's words (1946). And so it was that the convergence of geodesy, photogrammetry, and cartography at the heart of this story took place at the highest levels of secrecy in the history of the United States.
...Through several decades of "black" programs, the CIA devised a methodology for developing overhead imagery sensors and their allied technologies.
"Black" programs encompass many endeavors, but for this discussion the important point is that CIA imagery acquisition programs involved small numbers of sole-source contractors cleared into top-secret codeword compartmentalized security domains and paid in unaccountable funds issued directly from the Directorate of Central Intelligence (DCI).
The model began in the early 1950s with the Genetrix program, which used experimental high-altitude reconnaissance cameras mounted in stratospheric balloons. Then came project Aquatone, better known as the U-2, the first in a series of high performance, high-altitude reconnaissance planes built in the middle 1950s. The imagery associated with these sensor platforms was ordered under some of the most restricted security protocols ever devised-a set of protocols originally called Talent.
Reconnaissance then went into orbit with a series of satellite-borne imagery systems, staring in 1958 with Corona, the foundational global remote sensing system and continuing to the present. Space-borne reconnaissance was ordered under a new set of Keyhole protocols. Later these were combined into the Talent-Keyhole security protocol system covering all overhead reconnaissance, which survives to the present day.
Page 269; The combination of the new sensor systems and their applications, especially over hostile territory, induced another major structural distinction between the operational roles of the Air Force and Army in data acquisition and reduction. The data collection systems included some of the most important and closely guarded national secrets, while the data reduction and mapping systems remained largely unclassified. The combinations of secret data and unclassified data management systems created tensions,
required subterfuge, and ultimately triggered important and unintended consequences that changed the course of American cartography.
Page 274; Nominally civilian federal agencies were integrated into the classified infrastructure by quietly acquiring their own classified labs, so that they could use intelligence and classified materials. The first building at the new USGS National Mapping Division complex at Reston, Virginia, was Building E-1- a Talent-Keyhole-level, secure, compartmentalized intelligence facility (SCIF). Inside Building E-1, USGS civilian personnel had access to U-2 and SR-71 aerial reconnaissance photography as well as Corona
film from space.
The Geological Survey has been mapping the nation with top-secret intelligence assets for a third of a century, although none of this was ever publicly acknowledged until the declassification of Corona. Nevertheless, USGS maps have hinted at these developments. Starting in the late 1960s, the photo-revised USGS 7.5 minute quadrangles have noted, in their legends, that the photo-revisions are based on "aerial photography and other source data". The "other source data" were and remain the deepest
secrets of the nation."
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6. Remote sensing of humans is a 2003 goal of U.S. Special Operations Command.
One of the rare times this goal has been cited. Surreptitious human surveillance is classified and controversial. National Defense Industrial Association, May 1, 2003, National Defense No. 594, Vol. 87, 'Special operators seeking a technological advantage, U.S. Special Operations Command' by Harold Kennedy;
The U.S. Special Operations Command is looking for 'leap-ahead' technologies that can give its troops a decided advantage over their adversaries in wars such as those in Iraq and Afghanistan.
...Signature reduction. Technologies must enable significant reductions in the signatures of the special operator and his equipment, including air, land and sea-based platforms, Wattenbarger said.
Signatures are distinctive patterns or characteristics by which something can be recognized. They can involve visual, aural, olfactory, seismic, electromagnetic, laser, infrared or radio frequency signals. Projects underway include a vehicle camouflage system; a small, versatile, maritime mobility craft, and active noise cancellation.
...Remote sensing. Sensors must be capable of detecting electronic transmission, seismic, acoustical, infrared, electro-optic, electromagnetic and radio frequency signatures--the physical presence--of target individuals and groups, ...
National Security Archive, Electronic Briefing Book, No. 35 at http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB35/
The NRO Declassified. In September 1992 the Department of Defense acknowledged the existence of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), an agency established in 1961 to manage the development and operation of the nation's reconnaissance satellite systems. The creation of the NRO was the result of a number of factors.
...Defining the Future of the NRO for the 21st Century, Final Report, Executive Summary August 26, 1996 Unclassified 30 pp.
This report was apparently the first major outside review of the NRO conducted during the Clinton administration, and the first conducted after the NRO's transformation to an overt institution and its restructuring were firmly in place.
Among those conducting the review were former Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Adm. David E. Jeremiah, former NRO director Martin Faga, and former Deputy Director of Central Intelligence John McMahon. Issues studied by the panel included, inter alia, the existence of a possible alternative to the NRO, NRO's mission in the 21st Century, support to military operations, security, internal organization, and the relationship with NRO's customers.
After reviewing a number of alternatives, the panel concluded that no other arrangement was superior for carrying out the NRO mission. It did, however, recommend, changes with regards to NRO's mission and internal organization. The panel concluded that where the NRO's current mission is 'worldwide intelligence,' its future mission should be 'global information superiority,' which "demands intelligence capabilities unimaginable just a few years ago."
The panel also recommended creation of a fourth NRO directorate, which was subsequently established, to focus solely on the development of advanced systems, in order to "increase the visibility and stature of technology innovation in the NRO."
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7. Sophisticated remote mind control capabilities are classified and controversial. How advanced the capabilities is not known but powerful battlefield and mind control weapons are scientifically feasible today.
Comparing Delgado's 1969 research cited below to the science of the 1976 article and to a 2003 article below, mind control seems to be promising research. The obvious question is why more progress not been made since 1969. An educated guess is that a large portion of mind control research is classified.
Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society, Yale University, by Jose, M.R. Delgado MD., 1969;
A new technology ... methodology has proved that movements, sensations, emotions, desires, ideas, and a variety of psychological phenomena may be induced, inhibited, or modified by electrical stimulation of specific areas of the brain.
Page 81; Also, several investigators have learned to identify patterns of electrical activity (which a computer could also recognize) localized in specific areas of the brain and related to determined phenomena such as perception of smells or visual perception of edges and movements. We are advancing rapidly in the pattern recognition of electrical correlates of behavior and in the methodology for two-way radio communication between brain and computers.
March 29th 1976, Los Angeles Times, Mind Reading Machine Tells Secrets of the Brain. Sci-Fi Comes True, by Norman Kempster;
...George H. Heilmeier, director of the research agency, dropped tantalizing hints about the EEG program in his annual report to Congress.
...For one thing, the EEG must be individually calibrated. Brain-wave graphs mean different things for different persons. So it is necessary to obtain a baseline graph by having each individual think a specific series of thoughts.
"It is quick and easy to make the calibration but it must be done for each individual." one scientist explained.
October 11, 2003, San Francisco Chronicle, 'Devices that read human thought now possible, study says brain implants could help severely disabled' by Carl T. Hall;
...[Dr. Miguel A.L. Nicolelis of Duke University] and others discussed their latest findings at the annual meeting in New Orleans of the Society for Neuroscience, the world's largest gathering of brain researchers. ...In the latest studies on people, Nicolelis' Duke group had to use a simplified version of the animal study protocol to stay within the bounds of a five-minute surgical window. But that was still enough,
Nicolelis said, to show animal and human brains can be read much in the same way. "We are showing the same computational algorithms work, the same technology in general works,..."
Many more examples posted at www.mindjustice.org
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8. New research on targeting the brain indicates electromagnetic brain communication is a scientifically valid theory.
The widespread cover story is that russian mind control doesn't work or
that no US mind control program exists. For example, Defense News, December
17-23 2001, Israel Fields Means to Suppress Palestinian Violence by Louise
...In a Dec. 9 interview marking the close of his four-year term at
the helm of Israel's formidable defense research and development sector,
Ben-Israel, [Major General Isaac Ben-Israel] said his directorate explored
different scientific and phenomenological fields-including mind control- in
attempts to contain and deter terrorist activity. "We invested in this for a
few years...but we determined that it was not effective," Ben-Israel said of
mind control methods, many of which were developed by military and security
agencies of the former Soviet Union.
And yet numerous articles for several decades describe government funding
and interest in electromagnetic 'mind
control' technology that does work or is scientifically feasible. See
The CNN news broadcast, Special Assignment by Chuck DeCaro, "Weapons of War,
Is there an RF Gap?", November 1985 demonstrated Soviet mind control
technology that worked. Dr. Bill van Bise, electrical engineer, conducting
a demonstration of Soviet scientific data and schematics for beaming a
magnetic field into the brain to cause visual hallucinations. The
demonstration on reporter Chuck DeCaro was successful. Dr. van Bise stated,
"In three weeks, I could put together a device [weapon] that would take care
of a whole town." Reporter Chuck DeCaro was blindfolded and his ears were
blocked for sound in an experiment using Soviet specifications for equipment
capable of generating specific but very weak magnetic signals designed to
cause visual 'hallucinations'. DeCaro stated "A parabola just went by.. I
could see wave forms changing shape as they went by."
But after decades of research why is there so little
progress in mind control technology? With a closer examination, a pattern
of government control of the development and funding of electromagnetic mind
control research emerges.
In spite of the decades of research and interest, only the most basic 'mind
control' technologies are ever discussed in the unclassified literature. As
noted in the 1976 Los Angeles Times article on reading thoughts via
brainwaves, the classified research in this area included research for
military purposes. Reading thoughts via brainwaves has not advanced since
the 1976 Los Angeles Times article reported that an EEG or brainwave signals
can determine whether someone is fatigued, puzzled or daydreaming, how
someone perceives colors and shapes and tell the difference between a
'right' answer based on knowledge and one that was merely a lucky guess.
Here is another example. After many decades, the same rudimentary mind
control technology that targets the human nervous system is repeatedly 'in
development'. The unclassified weapons stun, disorient or immobilize.
After many decades, electromagnetic weapons are known to be extremely
classified but how sophisticated or well developed is impossible to
determine. What is known is that after decades of research, the science
of electromagnetic mind control continues to remain well funded and
Here is 2005 article and example of how government control of research and
funding has allowed only rudimentary mind control technologies in the public
eye while government electromagnetic mind control research has remained
classified for several decades. The following October 2005 article
describes very elementary electromagnetic technology for video games and
then describes military interest, funding and research of this technology.
Sophisticated electromagnetic mind control weapons of extreme importance to
national security are a likely explanation for this decades old pattern of
classified electromagnetic weapons and the concurrent development and lack
of progress with unclassified electromagnetic mind control technologies.
In the AP article " Remote Control Device 'Controls' Humans" by Yuri
Kageyama, Oct 27, 2005 9:08 PM US/Eastern, the reporter said this
electromagnetic technology works in spite of your resistance to the
electromagnetic field. "Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corp.,
Japan's top telephone company, says it is developing the technology to
perhaps make video games more realistic. ...The technology is called
galvanic vestibular stimulation-essentially, electricity messes with the
delicate nerves inside the ear that help maintain balance. ...Another
program had the electric current timed to music. My head was pulsating
against my will, getting jerked around on my neck. I became so dizzy I could
In addition, the article stated; "Timothy Hullar, assistant professor at
the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Mo., believes
finding the right way to deliver an electromagnetic field to the ear at a
distance could turn the technology into a weapon for situations where
"killing isn't the best solution. "This would be the most logical situation
for a nonlethal weapon that presumably would make your opponent dizzy," he
said via e-mail. "If you find just the right frequency, energy, duration of
application, you would hope to find something that doesn't permanently
injure someone but would allow you to make someone temporarily off-balance."
The article continues, "Indeed, a small defense contractor in Texas, Invocon
Inc., is exploring whether precisely tuned electromagnetic pulses could be
safely fired into people's ears to temporarily subdue them." The reporter
concluded: "...from my experience, if the currents persist, you'd probably
be persuaded to follow their orders."
The patent described below is scientifically feasible, scientists say but the technology has not been developed. April 7, 2005, New Scientist, Sony patent takes first step towards real-life Matrix by Jenny Hogan and Barry Fox. Print Edition posted here; newscientist.com/article.ns?id=mg18624944.600
Imagine movies and computer games in which you get to smell, taste and perhaps even feel things. That's the tantalizing prospect raised by a patent on a device for transmitting sensory data directly into the human brain - granted to none other than the entertainment giant Sony.
The technique suggested in the patent is entirely non-invasive. It describes a device that fires pulses of ultrasound at the head to modify firing patterns in targeted parts of the brain, creating "sensory experiences" ranging from moving images to tastes and sounds. This could give blind or deaf people the chance to see or hear, the patent claims.
While brain implants are becoming increasingly sophisticated, the only non-invasive ways of manipulating the brain remain crude. A technique known as transcranial magnetic stimulation can activate nerves by using rapidly changing magnetic fields to induce currents in brain tissue. However, magnetic fields cannot be finely focused on small groups of brain cells, whereas ultrasound could be.
If the method described by Sony really does work, it could have all sorts of uses in research and medicine, even if it is not capable of evoking sensory experiences detailed enough for the entertainment purposes envisaged in the patent. "This was a prophetic invention. It was based on an inspiration that this may someday be the direction technology takes us"
Details are sparse, and Sony declined New Scientist's request for an interview with the inventor, who is based in its offices in San Diego, California. However, independent experts are not dismissing the idea out of hand. "I looked at it and found it plausible," says Niels Birbaumer, a pioneering neuroscientist at the University of T￩ngen in Germany who has created devices that let people control devices via brain waves.
The application contains references to two scientific papers presenting research that could underpin the device. One, in an echo of Galvani's classic 18th-century experiments on frogs' legs that proved electricity can trigger nerve impulses, showed that certain kinds of ultrasound pulses can affect the excitability of nerves from a frog's leg. The author, Richard Mihran of the University of Colorado, Boulder, had no knowledge of the patent until New Scientist contacted him, but says he would be concerned about
the proposed method's long-term safety.
Sony first submitted a patent application for the ultrasound method in 2000, which was granted in March 2003. Since then Sony has filed a series of continuations, most recently in December 2004 (US 2004/267118).
Elizabeth Boukis, spokeswoman for Sony Electronics, says the work is speculative. "There were not any experiments done," she says. "This particular patent was a prophetic invention. It was based on an inspiration that this may someday be the direction that technology will take us."
Susan Saylor deserves a special mention for finding and posting the Sony patent. Here are excerpts.
United States Patent 6,536,440 Dawson March 25, 2003
Method and system for generating sensory data onto the human neural cortex
A non-invasive system and process for projecting sensory data onto the human neural cortex is provided. The system includes a primary transducer array and a secondary transducer array. The primary transducer array acts as a coherent signal source, and the secondary transducer array acts as a controllable diffraction pattern that focuses energy onto the neural cortex in a desired pattern. In addition, the pattern of energy is constructed such that each portion projected into the neural cortex may be individually
pulsed at low frequency. This low frequency pulsing is formed by controlling the phase differences between the emitted energy of the elements of primary and secondary transducer arrays.
Dawson; Thomas P. (Escondido, CA) Assignee: Sony Corporation (Tokyo, JP); Sony Electronics, Inc. (Park Ridge, NJ) Appl. No.: 690571 Filed: October 17, 2000
Current U.S. Class:128/897; 128/898 Intern'l Class: A61B 019/00Field of Search: 128/897,898,24
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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, 1990, Richard T. Mihran, Frank S. Barnes, Howard Wachtel. "Transient Modification of Nerve Excitability in Vitro By Single Ultrasound Pulses".
Ultrasound Med Biol 1990, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado.
"Temporally-specific modification of myelinated axon excitability in virto following a single ultrasound pulse" (pp. 297-309) Mihran RT; Barnes FS; and Wachtel H.
The Pennsylvaia State University, Department of Physics. 1984, J.D. Maynard, E.G. Williams, and Y. Lee. Nearfiled acoustic holography:n I. Theory of generalized holography and the development of NAH.
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Neurobiology, University of California. Garrett B. Stanley, Fei F. Li, and Yang Dan. "Reconstruction of Natural Scenes from Ensemble Responses in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus" The Journal of Neuroscience, pp 8036-8042; 1999.
Ultrasonics Fundamentals, Technology, Applications. Dale Ensminger, Columbus, Ohio. (pp. 373-376). "Human hearing in connection with the action of ultrasound in the megahertz range on the aural labyrinth" 1979. L. R. Gavrilov, G. V. Gershuni, V.I. Pudov, A.S. Rozenblyum, and E.M. Tsirul'nikov. American Institute of Phusics pp. 290-292.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 1996; Richard A. Normann, Edwin M. Maynard, K. Shane Guillory, and David J. Warren. "Cortical Implants for the Blind".
Computational Neuroscience 13; Eric L. Schwartz, Bjorn Merker, Estarose Wolfson, and Alan Shaw. 1988. "Applications of Computer Graphics and Image Processing to 2D and 3D Modeling of the Functional Architecture of Visual Cortex".
CMPnet. The Technology Network. Feb. 10, 1997. "Treading fine line between man and machine, researchers pursue silicon prostheses--Chip implants: weird science with a noble purpose--Second of two parts" Larry Lange.
EETIMESonline, ; The Technology Network/ 1999; ;Craig Matsumoto, EE Times; ISSCC: "Papers outline biochips to restore eyesight, movement".
JN Online. The Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 77 No. 6 1997, pp. 2879-2909, The American Physiological Society. "Encoding of Binocular Disparity by Complex Cells in the Cat's Visual Cortex".
Gttp: www.bionictech.com, Center for Neural Interfaces. Richard A. Normann, Ph.D.
BBC News Online Science, Dr. David Whithouse, Sci/Tech Computer uses cat's brain to see.
PennState College of Engineering, The Whitaker Center for Medical Ultrasonic Transducer Engineering.
Dpmi.tu-graz.ac.at/research/BCI; Brain Computer Interface.
Ipaustralia.gov.au/fun/patents/02_ear.htm; Bionic Ear Patent; Melbourne University--Australian Patent 519851; filing date 1978.
Measurement and Projection of Acoustic Fields; Earl G. Williams; Naval Research Laboratory, Code 5137, Washing D.C. 20375.
Resonance, Newsletter of the Bioelectromagnetics Special Interest Group. pp. 11-13, 15-16. Judy Wall.
Primary Examiner: Huson, Gregory;
Assistant Examiner: Kokabi, Azy;
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Mayer Fortkort & Williams, PC, Williams, Esq.; Karin L.
Parent Case Text
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
The present Application is related to the U.S. patent application entitled "Method And System For Forming An Acoustic Signal From Neural Timing Difference Data," Ser. No. 09/690,786, co-filed with the present application on even date, and assigned to the Assignee of the present invention, and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
...Low frequency amplitude modulation combined with wavelength phase interactions from the primary and secondary transducer arrays 200, 202 form a stimulus to activate neurons in the visual cortex area 100 or another other part of the human neural cortex. By controlling the pattern of signal amplitude and phase shifts in secondary array 202, a wide range of patterns can be focused towards visual cortex 100 or any other region of the human cortex. Ultrasonic signals altering neural firings are discussed in "Temporally-specific
modification of myelinated axon excitability in vitro following a single ultrasound pulse" by Mihran et al. published by the Ultrasound Med Biol 1990, 16(3), pp. 297-309 and "Transient Modification of Nerve Excitability In Vitro by Single Ultrasound Pulses" by Mihran et al. found in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, 1990, paper #90-038, which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.
Changes in the neural firing timing induce various sensory experiences depending on the location of the firing timing change in the cortex. The mapping of sensory areas of the cortex is known and used in current surgically invasive techniques.
...In a block 303, the signal generator 102 converts the firing time differences to a first signal 104A. For example, the first signal 104A may comprise an acoustical pattern, which comprises a plurality of amplitude and phase differences. I n one embodiment, this conversion is accomplished by using known techniques in generating projective holograms. Acoustic holography is discussed in "Nearfield acoustic holography: I. Theory of generalized holography and the development of NAH" by J. D. Maynard et
al. in the October 1985 issue of the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
...One advantage of the present system is that no surgery is needed to change neural activity causing a sensory experience.
Although the present invention has been described with reference to specific embodiments, these embodiments are illustrative only and not limiting. Many other applications of this present invention will be apparent in light of this disclosure and the following claims.
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9. Government goals of developing electromagnetic brain cognition and non-invasive brain to brain communication devices.
The proposed research below describes cognition via electromagnetic signals which is a much more advanced technology than the transcranial magnetic stimulation therapies, TMS, currently available for depression and other ailments. TMS or magnetic stimulation therapies don't have the capability for precise targeting of specific brain cells. TMS technologies are often cited as being incapable of development into sophisticated mind control. But precise targeting via magnetic signals is a proven and classified technology
as reported in the 1990 International Review of the Red Cross article which described weapons with specially adapted antenna systems and using the principle of magnetic concentration for precise targeting on the battlefield.
The Department of Commerce, June, 2002, four-hundred page report entitled, 'Converging Technologies For Improving Human Performance'
Page 355-6; 'Non-drug Treatments for Enhancement of Human Performance' by Robert Asher, Sandia Laboratories. ...Cogno. Understand how electromagnetics can be used to enhance cognitive performance as well as physiological performance. ...biotechnology in the understanding of cellular interaction with the electromagnetic fields. ...information technology in that the pulses need to be so shaped as to cause desired interconnected cell electromagnetic responses of cognition by external fields.
This article echoes the government's unwavering stance on mind control technologies for decades, i.e. full of promise but always a future capability. The articles never mention the classified mind control research dating back to the 1950s. May 1, 2003, Technology Review, "Mind -machine merger: a $24 million government initiative is jump-starting researchers' efforts to link brains and computers" by Gregory T. Huang;
Even more remarkable, such devices could enhance decision-making, upgrade memory and cognitive skills, and even allow one person's brain to communicate wirelessly with another's. Although such applications are as speculative as they are spectacular, scientists no longer view them as pure fantasy.
...[DARPA's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Allen Rudolph, program manager of the initiative] said, "we really don't envision implanting healthy people with these kinds of devices. The key to being able to restore or augment human capabilities, he says, will be gaining access to the brain signals in an unobtrusive way,-ideally, without wires, electrodes, or surgeries." ...And though this vision is still years away, our minds may already be on the road to a new way of thinking."
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10. Nonlethal and information weapons programs in 2005; reports of excessive secrecy and little accountability.
Ethical abuses are being reported with recommendations of further study, discussion and regulation.
The 2005 articles below describe the secrecy issues surrounding nonlethal electromagnetic and mind control weapons. Mind control and electromagnetic weapons have been categorized by military experts under information warfare. See http://mindjustice.org/russ9-05.htm. As reported below, the weapons are advanced and overclassified with little accountability. There is ample evidence for concern and further investigation.
Washington Post Sept. 21, 2005 'Commandos in the Streets?' by William Arkin. The article described "...the use of experimental non-lethal weapons, and federal and military control of incident locations that are highly controversial and might border on the illegal."
Further, Granite Shadow posits domestic military operations, including intelligence collection and surveillance, unique rules of engagement regarding the use of lethal force, the use of experimental non-lethal weapons, and federal and military control of incident locations that are highly controversial and might border on the illegal.
...Both plans seem to live behind a veil of extraordinary secrecy because military forces operating under them have already been given a series of ''special authorities'' by the President and the secretary of defense. These special authorities include, presumably, military roles in civilian law enforcement and abrogation of State's powers in a declared or perceived emergency. ...
September 29, 2005, New York Times, "Republicans See Signs That Pentagon Is Evading Oversight" by Douglas Jehl;
Republican members of Congress say there are signs that the Defense Department may be carrying out new intelligence
activities through programs intended to escape oversight from Congress and the new director of national intelligence.
The warnings are an unusually public signal of some Republican
lawmakers' concern about overreaching by the Pentagon, where top
officials have been jockeying with the new intelligence chief, John D. Negroponte, for primacy in intelligence operations. The lawmakers said they believed that some intelligence activities, involving possible propaganda efforts and highly technological initiatives, might be masked as so-called special access programs, the details of which are highly classified.
"We see indications that the D.O.D. is trying to create parallel
functions to what is going on in intelligence, but is calling it
something else," Representative Peter Hoekstra, Republican of Michigan and chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, said in an interview.
Mr. Hoekstra said he believed that the purpose might be to obscure the extent of Pentagon intelligence activities and to keep them outside Mr. Negroponte's designated orbit. ...
The report said the committee believed that "individual services may have intelligence or intelligence-related programs such as science and technology projects or information operations programs related to defense intelligence that are embedded in other service budget line items, precluding sufficient visibility for program oversight."
"Information operations" is a military term used to describe activities including electronic warfare, psychological operations and counterpropaganda initiatives. ...
A spokesman for Mr. Negroponte, Carl Kropf, described coordination between Mr. Negroponte's office and the Pentagon as "excellent" on budget issues.
"Successfully integrating D.O.D.-unique intelligence programs and
missions into the National Intelligence Program requires full
transparency," Mr. Kropf said. "Such transparency exists today."
Finally, the October 6, 2005, Washington Post, National and Homeland Security Microwaves, Lasers, Retired Generals For Sale by William Arkin;
...Those concerns are being brushed aside as the weapons advance along the familiar development path of boosters and patrons feeding information to war gamers who feed study participants who feed researchers who feed manufactures. At the end of the day, it is hard to tell whether high powered microwaves and laser came into being because someone conceived it out of need or because its existence in the laboratory created the need.
This week, for example, one of my favorite directed energy patrons -- retired General Ron Fogleman -- received appointments at two corporations, as a "senior advisor" to the Galen Capital Group, LLC; and as a member of the board of advisors of Novastar Resources.
The former chief of staff of the Air Force is a military-industrial legend, head of his own consulting company Durango Aerospace Inc. with a client list that includes Boeing, FMC, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, and RSL Electronics.
A quick check on the web shows that Fogleman also serves on the boards of no few than 14 corporations: AAR Corp, Alliant Techsystems, IDC, Mesa Air Group, MITRE Corporation, Rolls-Royce North America, Thales-Raytheon Systems, First National Bank of Durango, International Airline Service Group, ICN Pharmaceuticals, DERCO Aerospace, EAST Inc., World Airway, and North American Airlines. He is also Senior Vice President of something called Projects International, a DC consultancy and is or was a partner in Laird
and Company, LLC. And he is a member of Donald Rumsfeld's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, on the NASA Advisory Council, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Advisory Board, chairs the Falcon Foundation and the Airlift/Tanker Association. This guy is busy!
Fogleman gave up the job as the most powerful man in the Air Force on principle when he could no longer serve Secretary of Defense William Cohen. Since leaving, however, he has dispensed so much wisdom one wonders how much principle could be left.
One of Fogleman's first jobs upon leaving the Air Force was to chair the 1998 Directed Energy Applications for Tactical Airborne Combat study (known as "DE ATAC") which identified 65 concepts, particularly microwave weapons, selecting 20 for further analysis. The laboratory then awarded short-term concept development contracts for the five most promising to Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Coherent Technologies, and Sanders.
All during the 1990's, money flowed into continued development of directed energy weapons, but frankly not much happened. Everyone talked about an E-bomb being used in Iraq in 2003, but once again for a variety of technical and ethical reasons, and because the real world intervened, the silver bullets remained on laboratory benches or in the world of "black" super-secret contracts, waiting for an opportunity. ...
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11. Remote surveillance and NLWs (Nonlethal weapons); ethical concerns need to be studied and debated by experts and the public, ethicists conclude.
Concerns and ethics surrounding the ongoing development of electromagnetic mind control and surveillance technologies have been reported. Scientists having no qualms about the ethics of mind control are working on it. Ethical concerns regarding remote surveillance and NLWs need to be studied and openly discussed and regulations need to be implemented.
Opinion of the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies to the European Commission No. 20 Adopted on 16/03/2005 posted at http://europa.eu.int/comm/european_group_ethics/docs/avis20en.pdf
On page 11; Surveillance or tracking devices.
Wearable ICT devices for tracking the human body: such a device
allows an individual with a receiver to pinpoint someone's position worldwide.
Subdermal GPS Personal Location Devices: in May 2003, Applied Digital Solutions (ADS) claimed that "Digital Angel", a prototype implantable GPS tracking device had been successfully tested. However, technical experts are questioning whether the system could really work.
The disc-shaped "personal location device" measures 6.35 centimetres in diameter and 1.27 centimetres in depth - roughly the same size as a pace- maker. This GPS monitoring could be used for several purposes, such as for example, in case of medical emergencies (heart attack, epilepsy or diabetes), or for identification and location purposes (for people in high risk occupations, children, stalkers or suspected terrorists).
On page 35; Public Debate and Information
A broad social and political debate is needed as to what kind of applications should be accepted and legally approved, particularly concerning surveillance and enhancement. A precautionary approach is recommended by the EGE. The Member States and their national ethics councils (or corresponding institutions) have a responsibility to create conditions for education and constructive, well-informed debates in this area.
More information on the Digital Angel Corporation; Digital Angel Corporation develops and deploys sensor and communications technologies that enable rapid and accurate identification, location tracking, and condition monitoring of high-value assets. Applications for the Company's products include identification and monitoring of pets, fish, livestock, and
humans through its patented implantable microchips; location tracking and message monitoring of vehicles and aircraft in remote locations through systems that integrate GPS and geosynchronous satellite communications; and monitoring of asset conditions such as temperature and movement, through advanced miniature sensors. Digital Angel Corporation is a majority-owned subsidiary of Applied Digital. For more information about Digital Angel, visit the company's website at www.destronfearing.com/rfid.htm
The Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project- Research Report No. 7 (May, 2005) is posted here: www.bradford.ac.uk/acad/nlw/
On page 13; Medical Ethics;
In the December 2004 issue of the American Journal of Bioethics Jonathan Moreno, Professor of Biomedical Ethics at the University of Virgina, draws attention to 'Medical Ethics and Non-lethal Weapons.' His article reiterates the ethical issues surrounding the involvement of medical professionals in non-lethal weapons development, as previously discussed by Robin Coupland of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Moreno makes the following recommendation:
From NLWs to the treatment of terrorists, it is time for a respected, independent entity such as the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to commission a study of these emerging challenges to medical ethics in the context of terrorism and national security.
The New Scientist published an editorial in March 2005 detailing research in the US to develop a Pulsed Energy Projectile (PEP) directed energy weapon(see the Directed Energy section of this report), which raised serious ethical concerns over the research:
There is something chilling about turning research intended to ease suffering into a weapon that can be used to hurt people. Nociceptors, nerve cells that convey pain in the body, have been studied by researchers trying to relieve chronic pain. It emerged this week that a group working for the Pentagon is using that knowledge to turn the tables: to maximize the pain caused by a non-lethal weapon called PEP. So it is no surprise that pain researchers have reacted in horror to the plan.
This research was presented at the November 2004 Non-Lethal Technology and Academic Research (NTAR) Symposium at the University of New Hampshire, a forum where researchers, who are funded by the Joint-Non Lethal Weapons Directorate (JNLWD)through the Non-lethal Technology Innovation Center (NTIC), present their results.
Another example from the NTAR conference of medical research being channeled into weapons development is based on a new technology developed by the Center for Bioelectrics, which is a joint venture between the College of Engineering and Technology at Old Dominion University, Virginia and Eastern Virginia Medical School. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) funds the Center. Potential benefits of the new technology are described on the Center for Bioelectrics' web site;
Bioelectrics refers to the use of pulsed power, or the application of powerful electrical pulses, for extremely short periods of time, to manipulate biological cells, tissues and/or organisms. Researchers at the Center for Bioelectrics are testing the use of these high-intensity electrical surges to remove diseased or unwanted cells or groups of cells, such as tumors. Use of this technology in medicine and biology is the first of its kind in the world. The biomedical applications, based on ultrafast pulse-cell
interactions, have extraordinary potential to treat persons with cancer, cardiovascular disease and other conditions.
However the US Air Force's interest in the technology is less altruistic. Part of the research effort, which was jointly presented at NTAR 2004 by the Center for Bioelectrics and the AFRL, addresses "Neuromuscular Disruption with Ultrashort Pulses." The purpose of research is to find a way of using the technique to cause electrical incapacitation in humans for use as a non-lethal weapon.
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12. How real and/or imminent is the possibility of sophisticated and surreptitious remote mind control? A summary.
Independent sources provide relevant information for the debate.
So far mainstream press does not report on the ongoing classified government neuroscience for weapons research. This incomplete and inaccurate reporting contributes to public misinformation.
Zhijun Wei verified the science and technology of the russian electromagnetic antipersonnel weapons described in the 1988 German think tank article. Wei concluded that the descriptions of battlefield tracking and targeting of soldiers were scientifically accurate and possible.
Zhijun Wei's report concluded, "the science is feasible but very challenging for remote surveillance and tracking of humans via satellite." Wei's conclusions are reasonable given the evidence of classified remote surveillance programs and national security interests.
While Wei was able to conclude that with battlefield distances, remote tracking and targeting of humans is possible today, a classified new discovery or technology is necessary to achieve remote tracking and targeting of humans via satellite. Given the very real consequences of classified research, the possibility of classified surveillance technologies becomes more likely.
Addressing scientific criticisms against the possibility of mind control and remote human surveillance.
The 2005 Scientific American, the 1988 think tank article, the 2005 Washington Post article and Zhijun Wei all cited the same technological roadblocks to sophisticated mind control and surveillance.
- The need for a huge power source. But the 1988 think tank article described technology for battlefield distances which are available today. In addition, the military predicts development by 2009, according to the Dayton Daily News articles. Finally, the ICRC article described weapons technology using much lower energy levels to produce incapacitating and lethal effects.
- Precise targeting of specific areas of brain is not possible with remote technology because electromagnetic pulses decline in power and precision with distance. But the 1988 article described alternative power sources, phased array radar and holography principles which overcome this problem at battlefield distances. The 1990 International Review of the Red Cross article also cited available technology using the principle of magnetic field concentration and specially adapted antenna systems.
- Sophisticated mind control is not possible because as Delgado stated in the 2005 Scientific American article, "how complex information is encoded in the brain [is] a goal that neuroscientists are far from achieving." But Delgado described uncertainty with his 1950s-1970s mind control research; therapeutic benefits of human implants were unreliable, results varied from patient to patient and could be unpredictable even in the same patient. Delgado's nontherapeutic research on animals and humans
was successful and "could control subjects' minds and bodies with the push of a button, according to the 2005 Scientific American article.
The precision problem and complex encoding of information by the brain was overcome to some degree in the 2003 Sony patent describing technology that is entirely non-invasive, unlike implants. The Sony patent describes technology for communication of complex information to the brain via an external source. Sensory data that could be finely tuned, focused and transmitted onto small groups of brain cells with ultrasound, creating sensory experiences such as sight, sound, taste, smell, touch. While the patent is
not developed yet, the science is feasible according to scientists interviewed in the article.
The 1990 International Review of the Red Cross article, the 1976 Los Angeles Times article and several other sources above described developed and classified mind control technologies. Strangely, brain reading has not advanced since the 1976 Los Angeles Times article reported that an EEG or brainwave signals can determine whether someone is fatigued, puzzled or daydreaming, how someone perceives colors and shapes and tell the difference between a 'right' answer based on knowledge and one that was merely a lucky
guess. Brainwave and related technologies are far from being developed into sophisticated thought reading which may be explained by the fact that thought reading is known to be classified since the mid 1970s.
And after many decades, the same rudimentary mind control technology that
targets the human nervous system is repeatedly 'in development'. The
unclassified weapons stun, disorient or immobilize. With a closer
examination, a pattern of government control of the development and funding
of electromagnetic mind control research emerged. In spite of the decades
of research and interest, only the most basic 'mind control' technologies
are ever discussed in the unclassified literature. After many decades,
electromagnetic weapons are known to be extremely classified but how
sophisticated or well developed is impossible to determine. What is known is
that after decades of research, the science of electromagnetic mind control
continues to remain well funded and scientifically feasible.
Sophisticated electromagnetic mind control weapons of extreme importance to
national security are a likely explanation for this decades old pattern of
classified electromagnetic weapons and the concurrent development and lack
of progress with unclassified electromagnetic mind control technologies.
Articles and books describe mind control and remote human surveillance as heavily classified national security priorities.
Mind control and remote human surveillance are classified among the deepest
secrets of the nation. Dr. McCulloch described 1950s classified mind control
government research to find "where fancy is bred", i.e. the biological basis
The capability of technologies to detect and target the brain would seem to
be, by analogy the same technology for detecting weak signals of moving
targets and targeting weak signals towards a moving target. Tracking and
targeting human brain signals may seem like science fiction, but when the
problem is reduced to categories such as extremely weak signal detection and
signal to noise issues, the science becomes feasible, although almost
impossible to imagine from this vantage point. And as described in this
report, government agencies were willing to go to extreme technological
lengths for national security purposes.
Expert Jeffrey Richelson described classified satellite
surveillance technologies. Two daunting technological problems were
overcome. Richelson described scientist William Perry's work ; " it was
feared that the noise from other, and unwanted, transmissions such as
television signals would drown the telemetry in an ocean of noise. ...Before
proceeding further, Wheelon asked William Perry, who had just left
Sylvania's Electronic Defense Laboratories to form his own company, to study
the matter. Six months later, he reported that the idea was workable."
Richelson then described Project Moonbounce, in which "A typical signal
received via moonbounce was a billion times weaker than if it were
intercepted by an airplane ten miles from the transmitter. As a result,
only very large antennae could effectively hear such signals and distinguish
them from other signals" Dr. Cloud reported that remote sensing
technologies were intended to be classified forever and were developed with
unaccountable CIA funding and dating back to the 1940s.
Two 2005 Washington Post articles and a 2005 New York Times article cited excessive secrecy and evasion of congressional oversight surrounding very sophisticated psyops, information and nonlethal weapons which are related to mind control.
The capability for remote sensing of target individuals and groups was publicly cited as a government need, it looks like for the first time in 2003. National Defense, 'Special operators seeking a technological advantage, U.S. Special Operations. The 1976 Los Angeles Times article and the 1990 International Review of the Red Cross article both described classified human surveillance capabilities; thought reading capabilities from a distance of several feet and electromagnetic weapons targeting capabilities
at battlefield distances.
In light of this report, it becomes likely that scientifically feasible and powerful remote mind control weapons have been classified for decades. The general consensus is that sophisticated remote mind control is a future capability. Surprisingly and with a closer look, a valid and worthwhile counterargument can be made that sophisticated mind control and remote human surveillance are classified military and intelligence capabilities and are likely to remain classified.
Mind Justice's position
Some people believe that future weapons should remain classified. Some
people believe that mind control technology should remain classified but
that public input is a part of the democratic process. Mind Justice has
collected reports of allegations from all over the world of abuses and
torture using mind control technologies. Clearly the evidence in this report
supports the news accounts of the lack of accountability and oversight of
new mind control and electromagnetic technologies, even without the
Given the pattern of government development of mind control technologies for
the past several decades, it is unlikely that sophisticated mind control
will ever be an unclassified technology. Remote mind control technology
requires huge research dollars and the potential of developing remote mind
control technologies into weapons requires government regulation and
control. Victims who claim they are targeted with mind control technologies are told
that mind control is still science fiction and the claims are not
investigated further. As illustrated in this report, mind control
technologies today have remained rudimentary and little progress has been
made even after decades of government funding, classified research and
continued government funding and interest. This is an indication that mind
control research is a national security priority and is very controlled by
the government. The logical explanation is that unclassified mind control
research is still science fiction but that the classified goverment
research is well developed and advanced. Given this evidence, the many
claims world wide should be taken seriously and investigated further. Mind Justice's position is that some public input is called for,
along with accountability, oversight and mechanisms and processes for
whistleblower reporting and protections.
Most people are unaware that mind control and surveillance technologies have
been national security priorities and in development in most industrialized
countries for decades. The hard to find facts and resultant conclusions in
this report have rarely been reported in mainstream press, in part as a
result of the government's interest in keeping mind control weapons
classified. As seen in this report , a circumstantial case and serious
argument in support of the existence of sophisticated, classified government
mind control weapons and surveillance technologies can be made.
Mind Justice's position is that this issue should be extensively explored
and publicized, mainly because of the growing numbers of complaints
worldwide of government mind control abuses. The allegations of government
mind control abuse are serious and shock the conscious of the reasonable
person. Mind Justice hopes to hire professionals and experts in the future
and gather information so that thorough investigations will take place.
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13. Experts warn of a lack of study and legislation for surveillance technologies and nonlethal weapons; a call for public and professional discussions, legislation and regulation. What can be done now.
The 2005 European Commission ethics report on surveillance and tracking devices recommended social and political debate. The 2005 University of Bradford nonlethal weapons research report cited ethicist Dr. Moreno and his recommendation for independent studies on the medical ethics of nonlethal weapons and the treatment of terrorists within the context of national security. Research by scientists to develop weapons to maximize pain were cited as serious ethical concerns. Three 2005 newspaper articles cited the
lack of government regulation and oversight of new, very controversial and classified weapons, the Washington Posts article by William Arkin and New York Times article on the lack of oversight of very classified nonlethal weapons.
In the Washington Post article, William Arkin cited a lack of a sound deliberative process and careful weighing of consequences of the use of new weapons.
Now the public needs impartial and thorough reports and unbiased, reliable facts and information.
One possibility is a GAO or Government Accounting Office report on the new technologies and weapons. Any citizen can request a report from their congressman on topics such as;
Classified neuroscience research, the history, regulation, government oversight mechanisms and future implications.
- Nonlethal, information and electromagnetic weapons, the history, regulation, government oversight mechanisms and future implications.
- Remote human surveillance , the history, regulation and government oversight mechanisms and future implications.
Given the reported abuses and calls for regulation, public education of new emerging technologies and weapons should be a top priority.
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